ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Chameleon Facts

Updated on May 11, 2014
The colorful panther chameleon
The colorful panther chameleon | Source

Chameleons are Very Special Lizards

Chameleons belong to a very specialized family of lizards. Approximately 160 species have been described so far, more than half of them are endemic to Madagascar, raising the possibility that they originated on the Island.

Although the most widely known chameleon fact is that they can change their colours they have many more remarkable adaptations to their life in the forests of Madagscar, Africa, Yemen, India and Southern Europe.

Their eyes, tongues and limbs are all unusual and specially adapted to their unique niche. Although different species share the same characteristics, there is a lot of variation between the different species. They can range in size from the largest, Parson's chameleon, Calumma parsoni, which reaches up to 68 cm (27 in) in length to the tiny pygmy chameleons, the smallest of which is thought to be Brookesia micro where a female reaches up to 29 millimetres (1.1 in) long.

Although most chameleons are arboreal, i.e. live in treas, Brookesia live on the ground, where they hid amongst leaf litter

The Largest Chameleon

Caluman parsoni can reach 27 in in length
Caluman parsoni can reach 27 in in length | Source
The smallest known chameleon, Brookesia micro on a finger tip.
The smallest known chameleon, Brookesia micro on a finger tip. | Source

Fact 1: the Weird Tongue

Chameleons move very slowly and with great deliberation. To allow them to catch their prey they have evolved a very special tongue, which is extremely long, often it is longer than the body. The tongue can shoot out of the mouth and catch its prey with extraordinary speed, approximately 30 milliseconds (30 thousandths of a second). At the tip of the tongue there is a suction cup like structure, covered in mucus. When a chameleon sees an insect, it is very still, and captures the prey with its tongue, before the insect realizes that it is about to become dinner.

Fact 2, its Eyes Can Move Independently

Chameleon eyes are also unusual. The upper and lower eyelids are fused, covering most of the eye except for the pupil. The eyes are very mobile, and can swivel independently of each other. Thus giving them almost 360o degree vision and allowing to focus on 2 objects at once. This allows the chameleon to search for food in its vicinity very effectively. When an insect is spotted, it can focus on it with both eyes, so it can judge distance and extend its tongue out with great accuracy.

Pincer like feet

Chameleon foot anatomy is also unlike that of other lizards, and is perfectly adapted to grasping branches and twigs. The toes on each foot are partially fused into two groups, one consisting of 2 toes while the other has 3. This makes chameleons didactyl and gives their feet a pincer-like appearance, allowing them to grasp objects. On the front feet the 2 toed group is on the outside, while the 3 toed group is on the inside, and on the back feet this order is reversed. Each toe ends in a sharp claw which allows helps with climbing tree bark.

Changing Colour for Social Interactions

Many lizards can change colour to a certain extent, but chameleons can do this to a remarkable degree. Although this aides camouflage, the main purpose is communication with other lizards, either warning off rivals, or attracting females.

Chameleons are solitary and very territorial animals, males do not tolerate other males in their territory, and will colour up to warn them off. They generally turn dark when they are angry. Changing colour also helps them thermoregulate, they become darker when cold, to absorb more sunshine, and paler when they are too hot.

Chameleons can alter their colour rapidly because their skins contain three types of pigment cells arranged in three layers. The top layer consists of xanthophores, and erythrophores, which contain yellow pigment. The layer below that consists of cells called iridophores which appear white or blue. Below that are the melanophores, containing melanin which is black. The distribution of the pigment granules in the cytoplasm of each type of cell is controlled by the nervous system and controls the appearance of the skin, when the pigment granules are distributed evenly thoughout the cell, it appears intensely coloured, whereas when the pigment is concentrated in a tight spot in the centre, the cell becomes almost transparent. Hence the chameleon can have different patterns, which can rapidly change depending on its mood.

David Attenborough on the panther chameleon

5. Some chameleon species are livebearers

Many species lay eggs, usually in a hole dug by the female in the ground. Small species usually deposit 2-4 eggs while larger chameleons can lay as many as 100 eggs. Eggs take a long time to hatch, 4-12 months. Parson’s Chameleon’s eggs can take up to 24 months to hatch.

However, in some species, such as Jackson’s chameleon (Trioceros jacksonii ) the eggs are retained within the female’s body until they hatch, and she gives birth to fully formed baby lizards. This is different from gestation in mammals, since there is no placenta and the young are entirely reliant on the yolk sac in the egg for nutrition, they do not share their mother’s circulation.

This method of reproduction obviously has the advantage that the eggs are not exposed to adverse weather conditions, or the danger of being eaten by other animals. The young are born inside a sticky membrane, which attaches to tree branches, as the female drops the young, which immediately struggle out of their membrane and grasp twigs.

Jackson's chameleon
Jackson's chameleon | Source


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • musictunes profile image

      Kris Weber 

      6 years ago from Saint Cloud, Minnesota

      I've been really thinking about getting a jacksons chameleon just because they are pretty common and easy to find. I'm having troubles finding an aquarium though because I want to get a used on craigslist to save some money. My friend bought one with a small crack in it for 20 dollars. This is a good site on setting up their habitat These are good facts to know though because I've been trying to do all the research possible on chameleons I can do.

    • profile image

      this is awesome!!!!!!!!!! 

      7 years ago


      this website is awesome i am doing the chameleon for my animal report

    • aa lite profile imageAUTHOR

      aa lite 

      8 years ago from London

      I've wanted a panther chameleon for ages. Last summer I was windowshopping at a reptile show, and I came very close to buying one of the many juveniles they had there. Managed to stop myself at the last minute, I don't really have the space and wasn't prepared at all. It's definitely on the to have list.

      I didn't hear about them only seeing running water. I think they prefer to lick water from leaves etc. rather than drink from a bowl. This is probably what they do in nature, drink rainwater as it falls on leaves. Perhaps this is because they can't see the still water?

    • profile image

      Person wanting a chameleon 

      8 years ago

      gosh i want one of these! they as so cool! i also hear they can't see red and they can only see running water

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      this is so coooooooooooooooooool thanxxxxxxxxxxxx

    • profile image

      Chris Hugh 

      8 years ago

      Sounds like a smart strategy!

    • aa lite profile imageAUTHOR

      aa lite 

      8 years ago from London

      Thanks, this is my new 'thinking of a new topic for a hub' strategy, find a subject that has nice pictures associated with it.

    • profile image

      Chris Hugh 

      8 years ago

      Fun hub, love the pics.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)