Diseases In Quails
Common Diseases In Japanese Quails
Japanese quails are prone to almost all diseases that are seen in chickens and other poultry breeds. But these diseases are not acute since these birds are highly immune compared to other poultry birds. It is observed that most of the diseases seen in quails occur during the first two weeks of brooding. Hygiene is the key to prevent almost all the diseases that occur to quails. The cage or shed used for housing quails should be clean and should prevent other birds and animals from entering. Water should be clean and quality feed should be given. All the birds should be observed every day and any birds showing symptoms such as fatigue, breathing problems, difficulty in walking should be removed from the flock. Feces should be observed for any change in color.
Normally no vaccination is given to quails. Any medicine that is given is administered through drinking water. While giving medicine through water, make sure that the birds drink the water completely.
Some of the common diseases seen in quails are given below:
Quail Disease: This is a bacterial disease. There are two forms of quail disease. The first form is highly chronic and a mortality rate of 100% is observed among the infected birds. The major symptom is diarrhea, with white colored feces. The second form of quail disease prevails for a longer period of time. Loss of appetite is the major symptom. Birds affected with this disease will die within 6 to 10 months due to gradual weight loss. Medicines like Streptomycin and Bacitracin are administered in the treatment of quail disease.
Colibacillosis: This disease is generally seen in aged quails. It is caused by a bacterium called Escherichia Coli, which is a gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium found normally in the intestine of the bird. Difficulty to walk, loss of appetite and epilepsy are the symptoms of this disease. Chloramphenicol drugs are administered for the treatment of this disease.
Staphylococcal Infection: This infection is caused by Staphylococcal bacteria entering the body of quails through wounds in the body. The infected wound will grow into a blister. Even though this is not an acute disease, it affects the productivity of quails. Antibiotics are administered for the treatment of this disease.
Proteus Syndrome: This is also a bacterial infection. Major symptoms include fatigue and weariness. On post-mortem of infected birds, sores can be seen in respiratory tract, lungs, liver and kidney. Treatment includes administering 1 gram of fura-zone dissolved in 1 liter water continuously for 10 days.
Aspergillosis: Aspergillosis or brooder pneumonia is a fungal infection seen especially in quail chicks. This infection is caused by a fungal organism called Aspergillus Fumigatus. These organisms grow readily in wet food, wet litter, wet or rotten wood etc. The chicks get infected by contaminated food, unclean water and contaminated air. Major symptoms include sleeplessness, breathing problem, loss of appetite, convulsions and sometimes results in death. There is no effective treatment for birds affected with brooder pneumonia. Maintaining high standards of hygiene in the premises, avoiding contaminated food, removing wet litter immediately and disinfecting the equipments regularly can prevent this disease.
Candidiasis: This is also a fungal infection caused by fungal organisms of Candida family. Sore can be seen inside mouth and respiratory tracts of infected birds. 0.05% copper sulphate can be given through drinking water for 7 to 10 days.
Aflatoxicosis: This disease is caused by a fungal organism called Aflatoxin. These fungal organisms grow readily in wet and old food. Aflatoxin enters the body of quail through contaminated food. This disease affects the liver of quails. Symptoms include loss of appetite and fatigue. Liver tonics can be given regularly as a preventive measure.