Horses and Their Sense of Taste
The Sense of Taste is Important for a Horse's Well Being
Horses spend more of their time eating than to any other activity. How much time a horse spends eating is controlled by the amount of time they have to graze, type and availability of the plant availablity, the horse's eating behavior, their nutrient demand. How much a horse eats and what they eat very important to their productivity and well being. A horse's sense of taste plays an important role in what they choose to eat
A Horse Eating
Horses Have a Well Developed Sense of Taste
A horse’s sense of taste is closely connected to their sense of smell. Horses have a preference towards things that taste sweet and salty. They use their sense of taste to tell them which foods are tasty.
Horses have a well developed sense of taste. Like people, a horse has taste buds that help them perceive the way different things taste. A horse’s taste buds can easily differentiate between bitter, sour, sweet and salty. They avoid bitter and sour things. Researchers know very little about horse’s sense of taste. What they do believe is that selective taste buds are designed to protect horses from ingesting toxic plants, and that may be the reason horses have an aversion to bitter tasting things.
The sense of taste, known as the gustatory sense in all animals is an important component of the dietary information and is necessary for their very survival. Smell and taste are perceived through three sensory receptors in the head of a horse.
Horses Graze for Hours
How Does the Sense of Taste Work in a Horse
This is how taste works in a horse. A horse has the same kind of taste buds as people do, they are just located in a different place. A person’s taste buds are on the front and sides of the tongue.
A horse’s taste buds are located on their tongue, on their soft palate on the roof of their mouth, and on the back of their throat, which tells them whether something is tasty or poisonous. Horses have to be especially cautious about what they ingest, because they, unlike other animals, are not able to vomit up their food. They rely on their sense of smell to know how something tastes. These two senses are closely related.
A horse’s taste buds are onion shaped with chemoreceptors and other cells grouped together to form small sensitive projections or papillae. Substances that are able to be dissolved in the oral fluids that keep the mouth moist, and food that is mixed with saliva reach the tiny taste buds where action potentials are generated in the sensory nerves of the receptor cells, to signal the brain, where the brain interprets the information.
Liquids and foods go over the tongue and are either accepted or rejected. Horses have an innate preference for salty food and seem to like sweet things too. They don’t like bitter or sour food.
Horses Use Their Sense of Taste
Smell and Taste are Linked
How food tastes to a horse is in influenced, not just by its flavor, but by its odor and texture.
The ability to smell and taste is a complicated process that initiates the chemosensation system and stimulates nerve cells in the nose, the throat, and the mouth that then transmit messages to the brain. The tastes buds in the mouth, and epiglottis of a horse react to the food and liquids when they are mixed with saliva. It is the small surface bumps on the tongue that make up the taste buds and send information to the neurons which pass this information on to the brain.
Human beings are omnivores, we eat both meat and vegetable. We have approximately 8,000 to 10,000 taste buds on our tongue. These taste buds are regenerated every 10 to 14 days. Horses are herbivores, and have approximately 25,000 taste buds.
Science has studied the fossils of horses going back 55 million years and have determined that horses, even back then, were grazing herbivores. In the evolution of the horse, the first 35 million years, these ancient animals were much smaller than today’s horse. They had a relatively small body. From 20 million years ago to the present, their body size became more diversified. Studies have also shown that present day wild horses, and other animals in the horse family, such as zebras, donkeys, mules, etc show a preference for grazing on grasses and browsing on shrubs, trees, plants, and bushes. This scientists believe is done to balance the macro nutrients like energy, protein, water, etc that horses need for their mineral and vitamin requirements.
It is believed that horses developed a sweet tooth because finding sweet things in nature would put on more fat on the horses and help them get through the times there was less to eat.
A horse’s sense of taste and smell work together to guide their feeding habits. Like all their other senses, a horse’s sense of taste helps protect the horse from toxic plants, food, and water that could harm the animal.
Do Horses Know What is Nutritionally Good for Them?
Horses can appear picky about their food. But anything that smells and tastes unusual, including water from a different bucket, may cause the horse to refuse the food or water. Horses stomachs are very sensitive to bacteria, mold, algae, and slime. When there is plenty of grass and forage to graze on, horses will avoid going near unusual plants. Their taste buds can sense subtle differences in the mineral content of water, and may refuse to drink it because has an unfamiliar taste and smell to it.
In various science experiments to see if horses instinctively knew what was best for their nutritional needs, the results always showed that they do not. Horses selectively graze based on the tastiest grasses. They are not being selective because they know they need certain vitamins or other nutritional requirements. Horses eat when they are hungry and drink when they are thirsty. They will avoid sour and bitter foods, and prefer things that taste salty and sweet. When grazing, they look to avoid toxic plants and graze base on taste, texture, and young rather than mature plants.
Horses are Grazing Animals
A horse's sense of taste helps them pick certain feeds over others. Wild horses when grazing will select different types of forage, which is probably based on taste. Taste may also play a role in caloric intake. Horses have a high sodium requirement and to satisfy this they may gravitate towards foods that are more salty. Horses require salt to replace electrolytes they lose. When a horse gets hot in warm weather, and their activity level increases, their salt needs increase also. A horse that is dehydrated and has low salt concentration, the horse may not think clearly.
Horses graze night and day. They are designed this way, and take a few minutes to rest. As they graze on grass, their constant chewing produces acid their digestive tract muscles, which protect them from getting colic. Horses that graze this way, don't overeat, and don't get overweight. What a horse eats, their digestive system get use to. If the quantity or type of food changes all of a sudden, the horse can become prone to digestive disorders or other health issues.
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How the Sense of Taste Keeps a Horse Healthy
Taste plays a role in a mare and her foal bonding. When two horses groom each other, taste may also play a role. Taste it appears, is connected to the social connection between horses.
Taste helps to regulate the digestive processes such as their enzymatic secretions. A horse's appetite is determined by their pre-gastric stimuli, tasted, texture, and smell. How much they eat is very much influenced by taste.
Horses require a lot of water to drink. According to a Tufts University study done in 2006 by the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, the typical horse requires at least a gallon of water per 100 pounds of body weight each day. How much water a horse needs depends on their size, their activity, the weather, how much they have eaten, when they last drink, and whether the horse is pregnant or not.
According to s a study done in 1991, by Marinier and Alexander, horses are very accurate in discriminating between safe and toxic plants. Horses that have gotten sick from eating certain food will learn to avoid it in the future.
Horses Socialize with Each Other
Horses "Eat Like a Horse"
Horses use their sense of sight, smell, touch, and taste when choosing which foods to soncume. Taste is the dominant sense that will influence which feeds or forage the horse chooses.
The odor of food plays a minor role in which food the horse chooses. They use their vision to find forage or perhaps see something that makes them investigate. Horses will choose leaves over stems. They like succulent over dry. But a hungry horse will tend to be less choosy.
Research has shown that horses prefer to eat different types of forage, and don't necessarily consume the best quality.
Horses have large appetites. They are big and active animals and it takes a lot of food to nourish a creature so large. It is estimated that horses graze for about 10 hours a day. So when someone says you eat like a horse, it might be time to evaluate what you are consuming.