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PISCICULTURE

Updated on June 18, 2012

pisciculture

Catfish
Catfish | Source

PISCICULTURE


Pisciculture is derived from two words Pisce (s) which means fish or fishes and culture which means rearing , raising or breeding of living things . Therefore Pisciculture is defined as a branched of animal husbandry that deals with rational deliberate culturing of fish or fishes to marketable size in a controlled water body .

whereas Aquaculture on the other hand is a branch of animal husbandry involving raising or breeding of living things either plants e,g seaweed , plankton and algae or animals e.g fin-fish , shell -fish , oyster shell , clams , cockles , shrimps , crayfish , periwinkles , turtles in a controlled water body to marketable size . Pisciculture can also be define as a branch of Aquaculture that deals with raising of fish to marketable size in a controlled water body or simply put fish farming .

Terms used in Pisciculture or fish farming

Fish : This refer to a particular species of fish regardless of number or quantity

Fishes : These refer to different species of fish regardless of quantity or number

Fishery : The study of fish or fishes

Pond : Artificial body of water where fish where reared

Fry : Newly hatched fish

Fingerling : Young fish or baby fish

Hatchery : This is a unit where fish eggs are been hatch artificially into fry

Gears : Equipments for harvesting fish

Use of fish and fish products

Served as food to man

source of income and employment

supply high quality animal protein

source of high quality vitamin rich oil e.g cod liver fish oil from Codfish is rich in vitamin A and D

leather can be gotten from the skin of cartilagenous fishes

fish oil is used in medicine and in soap making industry

for research purposes

Types of fish farming

Fish farming can be classified into small scale fish farming and large scale fish farming or commercial fish farming based on the scale of production

or permanent and mobile fish farm which is based on the durability or mobility of materials used in construction of the fish farm pond , concrete fish pond and earthened fish pond are examples of permanent fish farm.

Factors to consider when siting fish farm

Availability of good quality water

Availability of good quality fish feed

Availability of suitable fingerling , fingerling that can grow rapidly and have good feed to flesh convertibility

soil type must be the types that have good water retention ability and also rich in humus content therefore clay soil rich in humus content is the best soil for lining pond .

Do not site fish pond on soil rich in heavy metals like copper , mercury , arsenic , lead or in highly industrialised area because the sulphur fumes produced in industrial area are poisonous to fish when dissolve by rainwater .

avoid acidic soil or rocky soil

vegetation of the soil must be easy to clear

Topography of the land must not be easily flooded

Types of pond

Nursery pond : pond where male and female fish / fishes are rear together

Growing pond : Pond where grow out fish / fishes are rear until they attained market size

Hatching pond : Pond where fertilized fish eggs are hatched into fry until they developed into fingerling

Rearing pond : Pond where fingerlings are reared into grower

Routine pond management

After stocking pond with desired fish or fingerling , it is important to keep and maintain the pond in good condition for optimum fish health and production . the pond should be observed for the following :

water quality : fish spend most of their life in water , so successful fish farming depends largely on good water quality , which refer to observable physical characteristics e.g temperature , color , odor , transparency of water . and chemical characteristics of water e.g PH and dissolved oxygen content of water .

check and remove all substances that may block the pond inlet or outlet flow

check pond wall for breakage and leakage

clear recycling filter system

feed fish properly preferably at 3 -5 % of their body weight

watch fish behavior especially in the early morning when pond oxygen concentration is at it lowest . this also help to know if fish is healthy or not.

watch out for predators .

assess water oxygen and ammonia dissolve concentration

sample pond plankton population

remove weed and grass on pond surface

check for signs of disease or ill health.

clear recycling filters system of any blockage.

Fish culture : There are two systems of fish culture in commercial fish farming Monoculture and Poly culture fish farming

Monoculture fish farming : this refer to fish farming where only one types of fish species and breed is raised on a farm.

advantages of monoculture fish farming : easy to monitor individual fish breed performance , there is no undue competition for space and feed .

disadvantages of monoculture fish farming : these includes : regression in water quality , cannibalism among fish themselves , overstocking of pond with fish which may leads to diseases outbreak.

Poly culture fish farming : this is rearing of two or more different species or breeds of fish on the same pond . the different species of fish of fishes to be stocked together in poly culture fish farming must have different feeding pattern one must be bottom feeder and the other surface feeders , and also have different habitat preference . for a poly culture fish farming to be successful , the sole aim of poly culture fish farming is efficient utilization of all ecological resources within the pond .

advantages of poly culture fish farming can produce new and better hybrid of fish are produced , fishes in poly culture are bigger and attract better market value .

disadvantage of poly culture : one species can easily prey on other .

Hybrid : this is new species of fish produced by cross fertilization of two difference breeds of the same species e.g the cross fertilization of Clarias gariepinus and Clarias macrocephalus has produce a new hybrid of clarias with fast maturity , more resistant to diseases in Thailand , also another hybrid of Clarias gariepinus and heterobronchus has produce and hybrid with fast maturity but delay sexually maturity of about 20months.

advantages of hybrid

Resistance to diseases .

Faster growth rate .

Quick maturity .

Disadvantages of hybrid

single sex population may be produce i. e offspring may not be able to reproduce in natural habitat.

Delay sex maturity .



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      5 weeks ago

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