Pisciculture is derived from two words Pisce (s) which means fish or fishes and culture which means rearing , raising or breeding of living things . Therefore Pisciculture is defined as a branched of animal husbandry that deals with rational deliberate culturing of fish or fishes to marketable size in a controlled water body .
whereas Aquaculture on the other hand is a branch of animal husbandry involving raising or breeding of living things either plants e,g seaweed , plankton and algae or animals e.g fin-fish , shell -fish , oyster shell , clams , cockles , shrimps , crayfish , periwinkles , turtles in a controlled water body to marketable size . Pisciculture can also be define as a branch of Aquaculture that deals with raising of fish to marketable size in a controlled water body or simply put fish farming .
Terms used in Pisciculture or fish farming
Fish : This refer to a particular species of fish regardless of number or quantity
Fishes : These refer to different species of fish regardless of quantity or number
Fishery : The study of fish or fishes
Pond : Artificial body of water where fish where reared
Fry : Newly hatched fish
Fingerling : Young fish or baby fish
Hatchery : This is a unit where fish eggs are been hatch artificially into fry
Gears : Equipments for harvesting fish
Use of fish and fish products
Served as food to man
source of income and employment
supply high quality animal protein
source of high quality vitamin rich oil e.g cod liver fish oil from Codfish is rich in vitamin A and D
leather can be gotten from the skin of cartilagenous fishes
fish oil is used in medicine and in soap making industry
for research purposes
Types of fish farming
Fish farming can be classified into small scale fish farming and large scale fish farming or commercial fish farming based on the scale of production
or permanent and mobile fish farm which is based on the durability or mobility of materials used in construction of the fish farm pond , concrete fish pond and earthened fish pond are examples of permanent fish farm.
Factors to consider when siting fish farm
Availability of good quality water
Availability of good quality fish feed
Availability of suitable fingerling , fingerling that can grow rapidly and have good feed to flesh convertibility
soil type must be the types that have good water retention ability and also rich in humus content therefore clay soil rich in humus content is the best soil for lining pond .
Do not site fish pond on soil rich in heavy metals like copper , mercury , arsenic , lead or in highly industrialised area because the sulphur fumes produced in industrial area are poisonous to fish when dissolve by rainwater .
avoid acidic soil or rocky soil
vegetation of the soil must be easy to clear
Topography of the land must not be easily flooded
Types of pond
Nursery pond : pond where male and female fish / fishes are rear together
Growing pond : Pond where grow out fish / fishes are rear until they attained market size
Hatching pond : Pond where fertilized fish eggs are hatched into fry until they developed into fingerling
Rearing pond : Pond where fingerlings are reared into grower
Routine pond management
After stocking pond with desired fish or fingerling , it is important to keep and maintain the pond in good condition for optimum fish health and production . the pond should be observed for the following :
water quality : fish spend most of their life in water , so successful fish farming depends largely on good water quality , which refer to observable physical characteristics e.g temperature , color , odor , transparency of water . and chemical characteristics of water e.g PH and dissolved oxygen content of water .
check and remove all substances that may block the pond inlet or outlet flow
check pond wall for breakage and leakage
clear recycling filter system
feed fish properly preferably at 3 -5 % of their body weight
watch fish behavior especially in the early morning when pond oxygen concentration is at it lowest . this also help to know if fish is healthy or not.
watch out for predators .
assess water oxygen and ammonia dissolve concentration
sample pond plankton population
remove weed and grass on pond surface
check for signs of disease or ill health.
clear recycling filters system of any blockage.
Fish culture : There are two systems of fish culture in commercial fish farming Monoculture and Poly culture fish farming
Monoculture fish farming : this refer to fish farming where only one types of fish species and breed is raised on a farm.
advantages of monoculture fish farming : easy to monitor individual fish breed performance , there is no undue competition for space and feed .
disadvantages of monoculture fish farming : these includes : regression in water quality , cannibalism among fish themselves , overstocking of pond with fish which may leads to diseases outbreak.
Poly culture fish farming : this is rearing of two or more different species or breeds of fish on the same pond . the different species of fish of fishes to be stocked together in poly culture fish farming must have different feeding pattern one must be bottom feeder and the other surface feeders , and also have different habitat preference . for a poly culture fish farming to be successful , the sole aim of poly culture fish farming is efficient utilization of all ecological resources within the pond .
advantages of poly culture fish farming can produce new and better hybrid of fish are produced , fishes in poly culture are bigger and attract better market value .
disadvantage of poly culture : one species can easily prey on other .
Hybrid : this is new species of fish produced by cross fertilization of two difference breeds of the same species e.g the cross fertilization of Clarias gariepinus and Clarias macrocephalus has produce a new hybrid of clarias with fast maturity , more resistant to diseases in Thailand , also another hybrid of Clarias gariepinus and heterobronchus has produce and hybrid with fast maturity but delay sexually maturity of about 20months.
advantages of hybrid
Resistance to diseases .
Faster growth rate .
Quick maturity .
Disadvantages of hybrid
single sex population may be produce i. e offspring may not be able to reproduce in natural habitat.
Delay sex maturity .