The Complete Guide to British Birds: Dabbling Ducks
These colourful waterfowl leave Britain every summer, usually around July time, for their annual ‘moult migration’ that follows the breeding season. Thousands upon thousands gather in the tidal estuaries of the Heligoland off the north German coast, where they become flightless for about three to four weeks while their entire plumage is renewed. They return to British shores in the autumn.
After three to six months, the new, duller eclipse plumage gives way to the extremely handsome breeding plumage. The nest is made by the female and sparsely lined with grass and insulated with down and feathers from the bird’s own breast. It is often placed 8-10 feet down an old rabbit burrow in sand dunes, or in another similar hole. The duck lays a single clutch of 8-15 creamy white eggs, usually in early May. The duck does all the sitting while the drake remains close by. The ducklings, which hatch in just under a month, are led to the nearest water by one or both parents. They can dive expertly if they feel threatened, and are totally independent of their parents after just two months. Shelduck broods tend to join up in large creches.
A favourite food of the shelduck is a small marine snail called Hydrobia. They also eat small shellfish, insects, worms and some vegetable matter.
Common Shelducks On Film
A Happy Couple
Wigeon are somewhat unusual among ducks in that they often graze on grass in a manner reminiscent of a goose, although they do feed in water and occasionally ‘up-end’ in a more conventional duck fashion. The scattered British breeding birds, confined mainly to Scotland and northern England, probably number 300-400 pairs, built up over the past 170 years or so since the first nest was found in Sutherland in 1834. The main breeding area outside Iceland and Britain is a wide Arctic and sub-Arctic belt running west from Norway across Asia to the Bering Strait.
The typical habitat of the wigeon is fresh water that is shallow and still, although they also nest by rivers on occasion and on coastal marshes also. When available, they favour islands as a breeding site as they afford protection against predatory mammals. The nest is a shallow hollow lined with leaves, grass and down and sited on the ground beneath overhanging tussocks or shrubs. Seven to nine eggs are incubated by the duck for around three weeks.
Wigeon often fly in spectacular formations numbering hundreds, sometimes thousands when moving along estuaries or mud flats. The drake makes a loud and musical ‘whee-ooo’, with a purring growl given by the female.
Language experts offer no clue whatsoever as to how the gadwall got its name which centuries ago were written as ‘gadwell’ or ‘gaddel’. But before 1850, when a visiting pair was trapped and wing-clipped, this duck was known only as a winter immigrant. Today a few breed in Scotland and winter mainly in Ireland, but most of the 100-200 pairs that breed in Britain are concentrated in East Anglia, where they are descended from captive stock.
The drake of the species, whose true homelands are central and western Asia and western North America, is rather drab when compared to other drakes. The bird’s voice is rather unremarkable too, with various grunts and whistles from the male and a mallard like quack from the female making up its repertoire.
Eggs are laid at the end of April in a ground hollow, lined with grass or leaves, insulated with down pulled from the duck’s breast and well hidden in thick vegetation. They are covered whenever the duck elects to leave the nest. After about a month’s worth of incubation, the hatched ducklings are shepherded out of the nest as soon as their down dries. They are easy targets for predators, so keep on the move as much as possible to bolster their survival chances. Gadwalls are strict vegetarians, apart from the first week of life, when the ducklings feast on protein rich insects, snails and worms.
The Gadwall's Mating Dance
A Lovely Pair
With their variegated colouring, teal drakes are attractive little birds, but because they are a favourite winter for wildfowlers they are mostly far too wary to allow birdwatchers a close look. The common teal is Britain’s smallest duck, and the call of the drake, a musical bell like ‘shring, shring,’ is very distinctive.
Teal fly fast with rapid wing beats, giving the impression of being in some sort of trouble. They are typical ‘dabbling’ ducks, feeding on the surface while swimming or walking in the shallows, sifting small seeds of water and marsh plants from the water with a nibbling action of the bill. Occasionally, in deeper water, they may ‘upend’ to reach deeper below the surface, but they never dive.
The teal as a breeding bird is widespread but thinly distributed in Britain, possibly numbering as few as 1500 pairs, but the population often increases with the arrival of passage birds in the spring and autumn, and by a large migrant population from northern Europe in winter. The teal is extremely secretive about its breeding arrangements. The nest is usually well hidden in thick cover is never visited by the conspicuous male, and only surreptitiously by the female. Teal ducklings very rarely venture into open water, as they are especially vulnerable to predation.
A Garganey Drake
A birdwatcher’s first glimpse of garganey may well be a pair of small ducks springing in alarm from a pool in a freshwater marsh, the drake showing a pale blue-grey forewing, white belly and broad, pale eye stripe on a mottled brown head. The drake’s call is a grating sounding like the rapid clicking of a tiny ratchet or a fisherman’s reel, will confirm the identification. But both the sight and sound are rare; numbers probably never exceed 100 pairs for the whole of Britain, and may fluctuate dramatically from year to year.
The bird feeds by swimming with its bill or its whole head submerged, by ‘upending,’ or sometimes by picking individual items of food from the surface. The garganey’s food consists of insects and their larvae, water beetles, caddisflies, midges, water snails, worms and the spawn of fish and frogs; it also eats roots, buds, leaves and fruits of pond-weed and water lilies.
The eight or nine brownish white eggs hatch after three weeks, and the ducklings can fly at around six weeks old. The drake becomes flightless for three or four weeks during its post breeding moult, when it adopts its ‘eclipse’ plumage. The females do not moult though, until the young are virtually independent.
A Garganey Drake Filmed At Slimbridge
The Most Familiar Ducks In The World
In both town and country, the mallard is the most familiar duck in the British Isles and across much of the world. It’s as much at home on a park lake or city canal at it is on a quiet country backwater or remote reservoir. Mallards living near towns have learned to live side by side with man, often relying on him to supplement their diet with bread and other scraps of food. Country-dwelling birds, however, have learned to fear humans, because of the activities of wildfowlers.
The mallard is a typical ‘dabbling’ duck, by virtue of the fact that it feeds on the surface of the water and can spring straight up into the air with a powerful whirring of wings. Its broad, flattened bill is adapted for filtering from the water a wide range of tiny plant and animal matter. The webbed, paddle like feet are placed well back on the mallard’s body so that it walk with a rolling waddle from side to side.
The female mallard makes the quacking sound that people often associate with ducks. The drake, however, also gives an occasional subdued hoarse sounding ‘raarb’ call, especially when suspicious or alarmed. Nests are made from leaves and grass, with a lining of down. They are generally well concealed often appearing in tree holes, meaning that the first thing that a duckling has to do is drop to the ground from a considerable height.
An Elegant Couple
Both on the ground and in the air, this is the most elegant of the British ducks. Its long slender neck, wings and tail, combined with its subtle colouring, make it easy to recognise and attractive to watch. A flock passing high overhead makes a truly beautiful picture. The watcher can also revel in the drakes’ faint wheezing ‘geeeee’ calls and the ducks’ rattling sounds.
Most pintails spend only the winter in Britain. None was known to breed in the British Isles before 1869, and even now the breeding population barely reaches 50 pairs. They rarely nest on the same site for more than a couple of years, so it’s very difficult to make an accurate count, even though the nest is often less camouflaged than that of other ducks.
Breeding begins in mid April in southern Britain, but not until two months later in the north. Usually there are seven to eight eggs, varying in colour from creamy yellow to pale green or blue. As is usual in wildfowl, the duck solely incubates the eggs, camouflaged by her dull colouring, and defends the nest and the ducklings with distraction displays. The ducklings are brown with white stripes and grayish white under-parts and take to the water as soon as they are hatched. In just seven weeks they are ready to fly.
Northern Pintail Courtship
The Odd Couple
The most distinctive feature of the shoveler is the long, rounded, spade like bill that gives the bird its name. The bill is used in the typical dabbling duck way, as it sifts through large volumes of water to filter out particles of food. This includes buds and seeds of water plants such as reeds and sedges, as well as algae and small mollusc's. Crustacean and insects are eaten, and so are tadpoles and spawn. The inside edges of the bill have numerous comb like ‘teeth’ to trap food as water is forced through them.
The shoveler is a handsome but uncommon bird, with a very patchy distribution governed partly by the availability of its preferred habitat, marshy areas with pools, ditches and other areas of open water that have muddy shallows rich in food. The nest, like that of most of the shoveler’s close relatives, is a shallow hollow in the ground lined with grass, feathers and down.
There may be between seven and fourteen pale greenish eggs in a clutch, laid from April onwards. The female incubates them for about three and a half weeks. The ducklings, which are led away from the nest as soon as all have hatched and dried, soon show signs of developing out-sized bills. They can fly when they are six to seven weeks old. The duck only rears one brood a year.
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