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Understanding Learned Helplessness in Dogs
What is Learned Helplessness in Dogs?
Learned helplessness is a psychological state during which an animal or human has learned through experience to give up and behave in a helpless way despite the fact that they have chances to avoid the unpleasant circumstance in the first place. This psychological state was studied in 1967 by American psychologist Martin Seligman when he conducted some experiments involving dogs.
In the experiment, the animals were repeatedly subjected to pain which could not be escaped. They were basically classically conditioned to expect shock after hearing a tone. When these dogs were then placed in a shuttle box divided into two chambers by a low barrier, the dogs made no attempts to escape, even though all it took was a jump over the barrier.
To further investigate this phenomenon, more experiments were carried out. Dogs were divided into three groups, one group comprised dogs who were strapped into harnesses and then released, another group comprised dogs strapped into harnesses and subjected to shock that could have been stopped by pressing a panel (escape-avoidance training), another group finally comprised dogs who were receiving shock at random times and couldn't control its duration.
When the dogs were placed in a shuttle box divided in two areas, the dogs in the first and second group quickly figured out that jumping out of the barrier helped then avoid the shock. The dogs in third group instead just gave up and never tried to get away from the painful shocks. This helplessness and failure to escape was similar to that observed in people suffering from chronic clinical depression. However, Pratt (1980) suggested that most likely Seligman's dogs were more similar to trauma victims rather than depressed people. The dogs may have failed to react because they were paralyzed by fear and terror or it was more of a learned response where the dogs through experience just gave up trying since attempts were futile in the past.
Maier and Seligman (1976) further thought that perhaps the inescapable shock caused so much stress that dogs were depleted from a neurochemical needed by the animals for movement. For more on how dogs react to stress read the "fight of flight response in dogs'' They also thought that in order for learned helplessness to occur, the dogs had to be A) exposed to a traumatic experience, and B) be unable to escape from such traumatic experience (control over their environment)
According to Lindsay the inescapable shock had dramatic effects which interfered with learning. In further trails, even the dogs who were successful escaping were so negatively affected that they were unable to repeat the behavior.
How Learned Helplessness Affects Dogs
The following paragraph will depict some cases where learned helplessness occurs. Often, people do not realize that what looks like 'good behavior" in reality is a state of learned helplessness. Imagine a teacher in class asking her scholars a question. A child raises her hand in excitement and answers. The teacher says the answer is incorrect. Next, the teacher asks another question and the child again raises her hand, sure that this time she will get it right. Instead, the teacher again proves her wrong. Repeat this several times and you will soon notice that the child will start raising her hand less and less. At the end, she may just give up trying, even if she's positive she knows the right answer. In humans, learned helplessness often affects self esteem, indeed, people who have been embarrassed enough times in social situations, may just start closing themselves in their shell, talk less and may seek out social interactions less and less. In dogs, learned helplessness affect their expression of behavior.
Puppies are born as blank slates that are naturally trusting and eager to learn. Unfortunately, negative experiences may affect them causing future aloof, suspicious behaviors. It's astounding the number of trainers who have started using shock collars to train young puppies a simple command like a recall. Puppies are very easy to train, they're fresh, with yet no ingrained behaviors. They do exceptionally well with positive reinforcement.
The use of shock in puppies and dogs, especially with no previous escape/avoidance training (helping the puppy figure out which behaviors he needs to perform to stop the shock) may lead to a state where dogs may appear very tentative and may be scared to offer any new behaviors in fear that it may lead to punishment. Often this fear of interacting with the environment is confused by the untrained eye with a well-trained dog "who behaves."
Nicole Wilde explains this beautifully, she claims " There’s a definite difference between a dog whose body language says, “Okay, I get it, you don’t want me to do that” and still looks bright and happy, and one whose light has been extinguished. The latter is unutterably sad to witness."
Many professional trainers and behaviorists who use science-based training, oppose to using adversarial, confrontational training methods. Cesar Millan is notorious for making the public believe that with his magical touch, he can tame the wildest dogs. In reality, what he is doing is subjecting the dog to a state of learned helplessness. The dogs give up, giving the illusion of behaving, when in reality they are in a subdued state of stress and fear!
How To Deal with Learned Helplessness in Dogs
So how do you deal with a dog who has been victim of learned helplessness? If you have a dog who seems to act subdued and is scared of interacting with the environment, you may want to help him become more confident.
The process is very gradual and takes time. However, it's also true that it's very rewarding. Keep in mind that it's often easy to label a dog just rescued from the shelter as shy, subdued and insecure. Often, you may wonder if the dog has been neglected and mistreated. Often, though, as these dogs get more acquainted with their new environment, they come out of their shell and show their true colors. Dog professionals have a name for this "the honeymoon period'. Basically, these dogs may act in certain ways the first few days and then act totally different once they "settle in."
So how do you help a dog that is very tentative in engaging and insecure? I have had good success using clicker training. I have seen tentative dogs bloom under my eyes as they discovered the bliss of how interacting with their environment provided them with rewards. And I must say that watching them come out of their shell is very rewarding for me as well. As Nicole Wilde puts it, by working on encouraging behavior we can "change learned helplessness into learned joyfulness."
The truth about Cesar Millan's 'Dog Whispering'
For further reading
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- The Effects of Prolonged Stress in Dogs
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