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Understanding Stimulus Control In Dog Training
Sit means sit!
What's the Deal About Stimulus Control in Dog Training?
You may have heard a dog trainer mention stimulus control or you may have read a book where a behavior is said to "be put under stimulus control," but what does that term mean exactly? If you never heard of this term before, no worries! The first time I really heard the term was in dog training school when our master dog trainer introduced us to several scientific terms related to process of learning. It took a while for us to fully grasp it's meaning, but with a few examples we all got it. Turns out, that day we found out that stimulus control was actually unknowingly being applied by all us both in training our dogs or performing everyday behaviors for many years without even being aware of it!
There's no need though to become a dog trainer to understand stimulus control as it can ultimately apply to many, many things in life we do. Indeed, most of the scientific terms used in dog training are the same used for explaining the learning process of humans. Indeed, a few years prior to becoming a dog trainer, I was a school-aged teacher and I was amazed of how the learning principles in teaching children are quite similar to those in teaching dogs. Seeing how these two disciplines of teaching children and training dogs related was quite fascinating to say the least! In this article, I will try my best to explain the term in an easy-to-comprehend manner so that it will hopefully become more clear.
Keep Your Dog Under Stimulus Control!
Analyzing the Term Stimulus Control
Before defining stimulus control, let's take a look at the words that compose the term. What is a stimulus? According to Mary R. Burch and Jon Bailey authors of the book "How Dogs Learn," "a stimulus is any object or event that can be detected by the senses and that can affect a person's or animal's behavior."
Both humans and dogs have special sensory receptors which are meant to respond to internal or external stimuli. When the external/internal stimuli are detected, the sensory receptors transmit information about them to the brain, evoking behavior. Here are a few examples of sensory receptors :
- Skin receptors on the skin detect touch, temperatures, pressure, vibration and pain.
- Taste receptors in the taste buds detect bitter, sweet, sour salty tastes.
- Auditory receptors detect loud, acute, deep, vibrating noises.
- Olfactory receptors detect pleasant, unpleasant, revolting odors.
- Photoreceptor cells in our retinas detect light, dark, colors.
- Proprioceptors are internal sensory receptors that detect how our muscles and tendons stretch so we can gain a sense of balance and awareness of the position of various parts of our body.
So it can be said that every moment of our lives are in some way impacted by stimuli that trigger responses. Stimuli evoke behaviors by transferring energy into our nervous system through our sensory receptors, a process known as stimulation. And when our bodies react to such stimulation, behavior occurs. So in its simplest explanation, we can say that stimuli are sounds, foods, touches, visual cues that we are exposed to on an everyday basis.
The next word that we want to learn more about is control. What is control? According to Oxford Dictionary, control is "the power to influence or direct people's behavior or the course of events." When it comes to dog training, the term control is often used liberately. We often hear people say in regards to unruly dogs "Keep your dog under control" or "Control your dog, please!" Some may even think "dogs need to be under our control." The word "animal control" also implies a person who is able to use a catch pole to control a rambling dog. However, we tend to forget that it's not really the dog that one must control, but the behavior of the dog. This is quite different! This can make us see things differently shifting from a need to control dogs, to a need to improve clarity in our communication and training with our dogs so that we can help them learn good behaviors.
If somebody says to us in a derogatory tone "keep your dog under control" as our dog pulls towards his dog, we often think it means to keep our dog on a short leash so he no longer drags towards his dog, but there's a more effective way to keep a dog under control in the name of training and that is by keeping the behavior of the dog "under stimulus control." How is this accomplished? By simply cueing a dog to heel instead of giving a forceful leash pop and keeping the leash extra short as our poor dog grunts, gags and chokes.
Karen Pryor's Conditions for Stimulus Control
1. The animal performs the behavior when the cue is presented
2. The animal does not perform the behavior if the cue is not presented
3. The animal does not perform another behavior when presented with the cue
4. The animal does not perform that behavior when presented with another cue
Source: "Don't Shoot the Dog" The New Art of Teaching and Training
So What is Stimulus Control?
Back to our pulling dog example, where our dog pulls towards another dog he sees on a walk and the owner says "Keep your dog under control," it's important to understand exactly the dynamics that are taking place. The other dog walking in this case is a stimulus that is detected by the sensory receptors of our dog and that trigger his pulling behavior. Because the other dog triggers our dog to pull, we say that the sight of the appearance of other dog is antecedent event.
Antecedent events may sounds like something fancy, but all they are are simply events that trigger a behavior. So anything that occurs before a behavior is an antecedent, but as our dog sees the other dog, we must consider that he also sees a tree, the owner and the sidewalk, but none of these trigger the behavior of pulling. Only the sight of the dog reliably triggers the pulling behavior response.So we can say that the presence of other dogs has stimulus control over our dog's pulling. Stimulus control occurs when behaviors are controlled by the antecedent stimulus.
Many of our behaviors as humans are under stimulus control. For example, we reliably stop when the antecedent event of a green light turning red takes place. We are so used to doing this, that our pedal pushing behavior to stop our car has become almost reflexive. Our behavior is so well under stimulus control that we only stop at the red light and not when it's green. In a similar fashion, we enter only stores that have the sign "open" and ignore the stores with the "closed" signs. Back to our pulling dog, in a similar fashion, our dog has been conditioned to reliably pull when he sees other dogs but he can care less when he sees a tree, a sidewalk or a person walking. To be precise, since the dog discriminates and only pulls towards dogs, but not the tree, sidewalk and people, it can be precised that the other dogs are a discriminate stimulus. Anything that's present before a behavior that is likely reinforced is a discriminative stimulus.
Why does our dog pull? Pulling in this case likely has a history of reinforcement. It can be that in the past, our dog pulled and this caused us to advance a step or two, enough for our dog to go be able to go sniff or meet another dog. Because the dog has been able to reach or at least get closer to the objects of his desire (other dogs), pulling is perceived as reinforcing. Anything reinforcing activates centers of the brain that are involved in motivation,and therefore this scenario will be repeated over and over if the owner doesn't intervene to train the dog more polite leash manners.
To recap here are a few explanations of the terms discussed:
- Antecedent event/stimulus: a stimulus that immediately precedes a behavior
- Neutral stimulus: An antecedent/event stimulus that doesn't evoke behavior
- Discriminative stimulus: An antecedent stimulus that evokes a behavior with a history of reinforcement.
The Dalmatian spots other dogs and looks at me to start heeling
The Process of Switching Stimulus Control
So in the case of the dog pulling at the sight of the other dogs, how can stimulus control help us? In this case, we can still keep the power of the discriminative stimulus alive, perhaps fading it a little bit to keep the edge off by keeping distance and keeping the dog under threshold, but instead of reinforcing the pulling by allowing our dog to pull us closer to the dog, we can train the dog that the sight of the dog means that you will give him tasty, high-vale treats for walking by your side. You can even prompt the heeling behavior by making a smacking sound with your mouth and keeping treats at eye level so to help your dog perform the heeling behavior. In this case, you will be using Differential Reinforcement to bring heeling behavior under stimulus control, a win-win situation for you and your dog!
Disclaimer: Because behavior modification comes with some risks, for safety purposes, please enlist the help of a force-free trainer or behavior professional for help in correct implementation of these methods for dogs with behavior problems.
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