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Aquatic Birds at Lost Lagoon in Vancouver's Stanley Park
Stanley Park and the Birds of Lost Lagoon
Stanley Park is a four hundred hectare oasis of nature in downtown Vancouver, British Columbia. The park is located on a peninsula jutting out into Burrard Inlet. It consists of forest with an extensive trail system as well as open and cultivated areas. The park contains tourist attractions such as the Vancouver Aquarium, an outdoor theatre and restaurants. It's a wonderful place to explore nature, despite the buildings.
One of Stanley Park's gems is Lost Lagoon, an artificial lake that was once connected to the salt water in Burrard inlet. Lost Lagoon is an enjoyable place to watch and photograph water birds. Many of the birds are very used to people and frequently swim close to the shore of the lagoon or walk over the trail that surrounds it. A nature house is located by the water.
A casual visitor to Lost Lagoon is likely to see the resident mute swans, Canada and cackling Geese, American coots, gulls, crows, pigeons, great blue herons and a wide variety of ducks. There are many other birds that visit the lagoon and may be seen by a frequent and patient birdwatcher - especially if they have binoculars - including belted kingfishers, bald eagles and cormorants. All of the photos in this article were taken by me during my many visits to Lost Lagoon.
Lost Lagoon at the Entrance to Stanley Park
The causeway separates Lost Lagoon from Burrard Inlet.
The Heronry in Stanley Park
The Pacific Great Blue Herons in Stanley Park
2015 is the fifteenth successive year in which Pacific great blue herons have returned to their nesting site in Stanley Park. The nests are built high up in the trees by the parks board office. They're made of sticks and lined with softer materials such as leaves and moss. Some nests have been used for many years, usually with a little improvement at the start of each breeding season.
Great blue herons generally nest in the same area for a few years and then move to a new one. Sometimes though - as is the case in Stanley Park - the herons nest in the same place for many years. In some areas herons are disturbed by human activity around them and abandon their nests. In Stanley Park, however, the herons breed successfully despite being very close to downtown Vancouver.
In 2015, 83 heron pairs used the nesting site in Stanley Park and an estimated 175 fledgling youngsters were produced. The public was able to watch some of the nests and herons via a web cam. The successful breeding season is good news, because the Pacific great blue heron is classified as a species "of special concern" in British Columbia.
Heron courtship takes place in March. Courting rituals involve elaborate displays, especially from the males. The birds stretch their necks, raise their bills into the air, close their bills with a snapping sound and perform bill fencing with other birds. They also raise their feather plumes and produce loud cries. They may display during flight as well as in the trees.
The females lay their eggs in late March or in April. The average number of eggs in a clutch is four. An individual female's eggs aren't all laid at the same time; there's a one or two-day gap between each egg's appearance. Every egg has to be incubated for twenty eight days. Both males and females perform the incubation duties.
Great Blue Herons in British Columbia
Pacific Great Blue Heron Facts
The scientific name of the great blue heron is Ardea herodias. The herons on the coast of British Columbia belong to the fannini subspecies. The birds are very large and may have a wingspan of almost two metres (about six and a half feet). Their long, thin legs create the impression that the birds are standing on stilts.
The herons are blue-grey in colour. They have a white head and a broad, black stripe above each eye. In the adults, plumes extend from the head and chest. The long, dagger-like bill is yellow.
Great blue herons eat mainly fish, but they may also catch amphibians, reptiles, birds and small mammals. They are patient hunters, standing motionless in water or moving very slowly until they are close to their prey. Once the prey is in view the heron lunges for it with its bill. Fishing herons are a common sight around Stanley Park.
Photos of the Great Blue HeronClick thumbnail to view full-size
The Pacific Great Blue Heron
Mute Swan Facts
Mute swans are native to Europe and Asia but have been introduced to parks in other countries. They are bright white in colour and have a distinctive orange bill bordered with black. There's a black knob on the top of the bill next to the head. This knob is larger in the male swans. Mute swans usually swim with their long neck curved and their bill pointing downwards. Other swans generally swim with a straight neck.
Despite their name, mute swans aren't "mute". They do have a quieter voice than other swans and vocalize less often, however. Mute swans make hisses, grunts and whistles on occasion, but they're best known for the "whooshing" sound created by their wings as they fly.
The swans feed on plants, which they gather from below the water surface or on land. Occasionally they eat insects and small animals.
Male swans are known as cobs while females are called hens. The youngsters, or cygnets, are grey or buff in color and have a dark bill. Breeding takes place in March or early April. The nest takes the form of a mound and is built on an island in a lake or close to the water's edge. Both the male and the female take care of the cygnets.
Mute Swans Courting and Vocalizing
The Mute Swans at Lost Lagoon
The mute swans at Lost Lagoon are popular birds. They are large, beautiful and impressive animals. Their presence has been controversial, however. Their wing tendons have been cut so that they are unable to fly, a process known as pinioning. This process isn't unique to the Stanley Park swans; it's done to swans and other birds in many parks around the world.
The official reason for pinioning the Lost Lagoon swans is that the birds mustn't travel to other places and reproduce since they aren't native to North America. Of course, pinioning also makes sure that the birds stay on the lagoon where visitors can admire them.
Pinioning means that the birds are less likely to escape from predators such as coyotes, racoons, off-leash dogs and even humans. The swans do have a powerful bill and strong wings to fight predators. However, swans at Lost Lagoon have been killed or injured over the years by attackers.
Mute Swan PhotosClick thumbnail to view full-size
A Pinioning Poll
What do you think about pinioning the wings of mute swans?
Ducks and Coots at Lost LagoonClick thumbnail to view full-size
Dabbling Ducks and Diving Ducks
A visitor to Lost Lagoon will probably see both dabbling ducks and diving ducks. Dabbling ducks feed by sticking their head in the water and their tail in the air to reach aquatic vegetation. They look as though they're standing on their head. Diving ducks dive below the water's surface, submersing their whole body and swimming underwater to reach plants. The goldeneyes, scaup and bufflehead shown in the photos above are diving ducks. The American coot may also dive for food, although it isn't a duck.
Many species of ducks visit Lost Lagoon. The types that are seen will depend on the season, the weather, the time of day and luck. Some species are very confident. They swim close to shore looking for handouts and come on land to feed when necessary. Other ducks are more wary and stay further away from the shore of the lagoon. A pair of binoculars or a long telephoto lens are needed to get the best view of these ducks.
Lost Lagoon is a great place for duck photography. Even with a compact digital camera people can get good pictures of the confident birds. More ambitious photographers with more expensive equipment will find even more birds to photograph.
Geese at Lost LagoonClick thumbnail to view full-size
Canada Goose and Cackling Goose Facts
The Canada goose and the cackling goose are very similar birds. They used to be classified in the same species, but in 2004 the species were separated. The scientific name of the Canada goose is Branta canadensis while that of the cackling goose is Branta hutchinsii. Confusingly, both birds occur in Stanley Park.
The cackling goose is usually smaller than the Canada goose and has a shorter, thicker neck and a stubbier bill. However, some subspecies of cackling geese are as large as the smaller subspecies of Canada geese. The species are easiest to distinguish when they are standing next to each other in a mixed flock. Luckily, mixed flocks are common. I suspect that the geese in the photos above are cackling geese, but I'm not an expert in bird identification.
Canada and cackling geese are often seen flying in a V-formation and frequently give a distinctive honk as they fly. Their diet consists mainly of land plants and grains, although they do eat aquatic plants too. Like mute swans, they also eat insects and small animals occasionally. The geese are found in a wide variety of habitats near water, including lawns and fields.
Both geese are monogamous. They mate for life, unless their partner dies. The nest is built on the ground, usually on a slightly raised area, and is cup-shaped. The female generally incubates the eggs and the male protects both her and the nest.
Cackling and Canada Geese Swimming Together
Lost Lagoon PhotosClick thumbnail to view full-size
Getting to Stanley Park and Lost Lagoon
I live near Vancouver and often visit Stanley Park to look at the birds. It's easy to get to the park from the downtown area of Vancouver. It takes about twenty to forty minutes to walk to the park, depending on the starting point, the route, the walking speed, and the number of times that someone stops to take photographs. Lost Lagoon is very close to the park entrance.
The TransLink website has lots of information for people who want to explore the Vancouver area by public transit. There's a bus service to Stanley Park. Pay parking is in effect for people who want to drive to the park.
For walkers and cyclists, a pleasant alternative to travelling beside a road to reach the park is to follow a scenic trail. The trail travels beside Burrard Inlet from Canada Place to Stanley Park. Someone following this route will find many great photo opportunities even before they reach Lost Lagoon.
© 2013 Linda Crampton