Yell really loud!
Alright. Stupid joke. I train deaf dogs the exact same way I can train a hearing dog. Clearly verbal commands are out, so hand signals are the way to go. Hand signals are quite effective for both hearing and deaf; it is simply a different way to communicate.
Make a priority out of training your dog to pay attention to you. This is important for any dog, but most people neglect this part of training.
If you like clicker training, a flashlight would be a good substitute.
The idea of being careful when you approach the dog so you don't scare it is a common myth. You treat the dog the like you would treat any dog. You wouldn't sneak up on a hearing dog and yell at it, so don't sneak up on a deaf dog and surprise it by waking it up with your eyes wide and inches from its face. You don't have to walk on eggshells and make a big deal out of going up to a deaf dog that doesn't see you right away.
If you make a big deal out of it, it will become a big deal. If you don't make a big deal out of it, you will be fine.