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What Happens When Your Dog Is Spayed

Updated on December 9, 2017
DrMark1961 profile image

Dr. Mark is a small animal veterinarian. He works mostly with dogs and exotic animals.

Mutts may be cute but they all need homes--spaying your dog will prevent "accidents"
Mutts may be cute but they all need homes--spaying your dog will prevent "accidents" | Source

Most of you will end up taking your dog to the vet to be spayed. There are a lot of advantages to having the procedure done since it will control overpopulation and keep her from developing pyometra later in life. But do you know what happens to your dog when you drop her off to be spayed?

When you drop off a male dog to be castrated, the change is obvious. With a female dog, all you notice is that you leave an active dog and pick up a quiet female with a small incision on her belly.

There is a lot more to it:

What Happens When Your Dog is Spayed

The Prep
Lab Work

The Early Prep

Your dog will already be NPO (no food or water prior to surgery so that she will not get sick and vomit) and the first thing that is done when you drop her off is a physical exam. As long as your dog has a normal heart rate and temperature, pink mucous membranes, and is hydrated normally, things can proceed.

Some veterinary hospitals will check your dog´s blood by performing a CBC (complete blood count) and a chemistry panel. This is not standard practice at many clinics. Only one dog in thousands will have a low platelet count, anemia that was not noticed during the exam, or problems with her kidneys or liver. If you are the owner of that dog, however, she might not make it through anesthesia. You should ask whether blood work is going to be done prior to the surgery. It might cost a little more, but it is worth it.

What a Blood Test Can Reveal

Type of Test
Possible Problem
Low RBCs---Anemia
Elevated WBCs--Bacterial Infection
Low Platelets--Bleeding Problems
Chemistry Panel
Abnomal creatnine or BUN--Kidney Problems
Chemisty Panel
Abnormal Liver Enzymyes--Liver Disease
Chemistry Panel
Abnormal Pancreatic Enzymes--Pancreatitis

More Preparation!

When the blood work has been looked over your dog will be put back up on the exam table and one of her front legs will be catheterized. Like blood work, this is not always a standard procedure, but having an open vein will allow her to receive fluids if needed, and may save vital seconds if your dog has any problems.

Some vets prefer injectible anesthetics and some use gas anesthesia. If gas is used, a small dose of injectible anesthetics are given and then a tube is inserted in the trachea. The tube allows gas and oxygen to be delivered into the lungs.

Your dog might have her belly clipped before she is taken into the surgery room, but in some places she will be put on oxygen before this even starts. She will have her first abdomen scrubbed then, but sometimes this takes place in the surgical theater. Her belly is scrubbed with a compound like chlorhexidine or betadine that will kill all the bacteria present on the skin. That way the bacteria do not fall into the body when she is cut open.

Giving birth is not as safe as being spayed.
Giving birth is not as safe as being spayed. | Source

The Procedure

The surgical nurse connects your dog to the anesthetic at the same time that she is being prepped. She will also have a pulse oximeter connected to her tongue at the same time. The pulse oximeter will keep track of the oxygen levels in her blood and if they fall too low the anesthesia can be shut off quickly, before damage occurs.

After she is tied down her belly is draped with sterile surgical towels and a large waterproof paper drape is placed on top of everything. A small incision is made on the ventral midline and the tissue underneath is dissected with scissors so that the vet can find the linea alba, the white line that can be cut without any bleeding.

He will then use a small blunt hook to reach down into her belly and pull up one of the horns of the uterus. When the horn is found, it is lifted up and the vet traces it down to the ovary. He places a two clamps on the attachment between the ovary and the body, puts a suture on so that there will be no bleeding later, and then cuts between the clamps.

The same thing is done with the other ovary, and then the base of the ovary is clamped and sutured before removal. When a dog is spayed both of her ovaries are removed, as well as the entire uterine body. All of her female anatomy is removed—only a small stump of the uterus remains.

When the stump goes back in the body, the vet leaves your dog open for a short time to make sure that there is no bleeding. The body wall is then closed at the linea alba, the subcutaneous tissue is pulled together, and a few sutures are put in the skin to pull them closer together.

That´s it! The actual surgical procedure may only last 20 minutes, as most of the time is spent in preparation.

Depending on how long it will take the vet to close, the surgical nurse turns off the anesthetic gas before the surgery is over. Your dog is moved to a recovery cage and when she is waking up enough to swallow her tracheal tube is removed.

Being spayed is great when it is over.
Being spayed is great when it is over. | Source

Waking Up and Going Home

A few hours later she will be ready to go home. Most of the effects of the anesthetic will have worn off so she will probably be on a pain medication and need to be kept quiet.

All you will notice is a few sutures on her belly, but take it easy on her—your dog would tell quite a story if she could talk!

This is the surgical procedure your dog will go through when you take her in for a spay.

© 2013 Dr Mark


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    • tillsontitan profile image

      Mary Craig 4 years ago from New York

      It is not often we get such good, detailed information about a procedure we've had done on our dogs for years. Thank you for always giving us the information we need.

      Voted up, useful, and interesting.

    • DrMark1961 profile image

      Dr Mark 4 years ago from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil

      It always amazes me that they pop back as quick as they do, epbooks. All most people see is that tiny incision, and since the dogs leave in such good shape most owners do not realize what the dog has gone through.

    • epbooks profile image

      Elizabeth Parker 4 years ago from Las Vegas, NV

      I never knew any of this although I know our vet does bloodwork before any surgery. It's been over twelve years since we had our pup spayed but I do remember she only had a slight belly ache afterwards. Thanks for the information!

    • Bob Bamberg profile image

      Bob Bamberg 4 years ago from Southeastern Massachusetts

      Really, really interesting hub, Doc. Almost like being there. Voted up, useful and interesting. I'd go on, but have to get over to the other URL...redemption time. Woo hoo.

    • LKMore01 profile image

      LKMore01 4 years ago

      Thank you for describing this medical procedure, Dr. Mark. This is such an important, informative and educational article.

    • Rebecca Furtado profile image

      Rebecca Furtado 4 years ago from Anderson, Indiana

      This is a very informative hub. I have had my female foster dogs spayed at the low cost clinic. I do not believe I have ever been offered the blood test. I will be asking for it from now on.