Successful Perspective Drawing in HubPages
Due to popular demands from numerous good people of this glorious hubpages, I have decided to write this hub tutorial on the topic ‘Drawing In Perspective.’ It is a lesson for beginners and novice in the field of arts and design. I want you to read and fully understand this topic which will help you in your drawing career.
At the end of this lesson, the students should be able to:
1. define the term ‘Perspective.’
2. draw an object in perspective.
3. state the two major types of perspective.
4. explain each type of perspective.
5. draw each type of perspective.
Equipments And Materials Needed
2. Steel or wooden measuring rule
3. Set Squares
4. Drawing board
5. Donkey chair (for sitting while drawing)
6. ‘B’ Grade pencils
7. Lead pencil erasers
Definition of Perspective
Perspective in drawing is a law of visual art which implies that all objects of the same sizes, textures and colors seem to vary against one another as they recede from the observer into the background.
This implies that all physical objects seem to reduce in values in terms of sizes, textures and colors as they move far away from us whenever we observe them.
One day, when I was moving along a street with electric poles in a role beside a sidewalk, I observed the poles and suddenly I noticed the optic illusion which laid bare before my view. The poles! They are apparently not the same size, but common sense told me that if only I could measure each of them, I would find that they are all equal in their sizes. In the study of perspective and other related subjects like technical drawing and draughtsmanship this is what we call ‘optical illusion.’ The way we see things are different from what they really are!
In the study of perspective there are various terms which one should get familiar with for greater understanding of the subject. The terms include the following:
Linear Perspective - A system for drawing three dimensional space on a two dimensional surface by following the guidelines that all parallel and receding lines converge to vanishing points, and that objects appear smaller as they recede in space.
One-Point Perspective - A type of linear perspective where the sides of the object that are facing the viewer are parallel to the picture plane and the parallel lines that recede from the viewer converge to a single vanishing point.
Two-Point Perspective - A type of linear perspective where the sides of the object that are facing the viewer are at an angle to the picture plane and the parallel lines that recede from the viewer converge to two vanishing points.
Three-Point Perspective - A type of linear perspective where the sides of the object that are facing the viewer are at an angle to the to the picture plane and the parallel lines that recede from the viewer converge to three vanishing points.
Picture plane - An imaginary transparent plane that is between the viewer and the subject.
Horizon line - Also known as the “Eye Level Line”. This line is drawn across the page and represents the eye level of the viewer. The height of the horizon line changes depending on the viewer’s height. This changes the view of the subject.
Eye level line - The vantage point of the spectator.
Parallel lines - Two lines that are the same distance from one another.
Vanishing point - Imaginary points on the horizon line in 1 pt. and 2 pt. perspective. Receding lines converge to these points.
Station point - One of the two variables that control view in a drawing. This refers to a stationery point on the ground from which the viewer/artist observes the scene.
Receding - Moving away from the viewer. (Opposite) - Advancing.
Diminishing Forms - Refers to the apparent size of objects and how they become smaller when the distance between the object moves further away from the observer or artist.
Converging lines - Parallel lines that come together towards a single vanishing point.
Overlapping - - A technique used to create depth on a 2-D surface by placing one form over another
Foreshortening - The apparent reduction in the length or width of a subject due to the angle from which it is viewed.
Ground line - The bottom of the picture plane.
Orthogonal Lines - Imaginary or lightly drawn guidelines in a perspective drawing. They are usually the parallel lines that converge on to the horizon line.
Line of Sight - An imaginary line traveling from the eye of the spectator to infinity.
Overlay - A transparent sheet of paper that allows the viewer of a design to reference a drawing below it.
Sighting - An angle measuring technique in which the artist holds out a pencil out at arm’s length toward an object being examined to make comparisons.
Types of Perspective
There are two major types of perspective. They are:
1. Linear Perspective
2. Aerial Perspective
Linear perspective is a geometric drawing of shapes in which their parallel lines are drawn as converging in order to create an illusion of depth and distance. It is a perspective of objects drawn in lines.
Aerial Perspective (Atmospheric Perspective)
This is the type of perspective in which a technique in which an illusion of depth is used by painting more distant objects with less clarity, and with a lighter tone but near objects with rich and detailed colors. Another name for aerial perspective is ‘Atmospheric Perspective.’
To an observer’s eyes when viewing an object in atmospheric perspective, colors of objects which are near are richer than the colors of far objects. Go out there now and observe. Visit an open place where you can see some forest and trees. You will observe that the trees that are near you are more detailed in colors and textures that those far away from you. You may even notice that the vegetation that stands out very far are very pale and seem to have changed from the original rich green color. It is the atmosphere that has caused this and it affects the way we see things.
1. What do you understand by the term perspective?
2. With the aid of your drawing materials draw out an object observing the law of perspective as you draw.
3. State the two major types of perspective and highlight both their similarities and differences in application.
4. Give detailed explanations of each type of perspective.
5. Illustrate with pencil and color each type of perspective.