Basic Watercolor Techniques Explained
Watercolor Made Simple
There are as many different ways to paint a single subject as there are artists with brushes. I will try to give you just a few examples and you will have to find the one that best suits you and your style.
Try all of them on a small piece of paper just to get the feel for the paper, the paint, and the brushes. Then you can make a better-informed decision. Many great artists make a small paper "swatch" of each of the colors they are working with just to get the feel for the paint and the colors.
Wet-On-Wet With Salt
Wash or Wet-On-Wet Technique
By wetting a large area and then pouring, streaking, dotting, or painting on large areas, as soft and muted background can be made. You can wet the whole paper by dipping it in a sink or wet a small area at a time by painting on the water with a brush. This allows you to mix colors directly on the paper and achieve graduation and soft edges.
A color wash can be applied on dry paper if only you will work with a large brush and fast strokes taking the paint puddles down the paper. At the bottom of the wash, dip out the excess water with a towel or a thirsty brush.
A variegated wash can be applied by loading the brush with lots of color in the beginning and then only adding water after that. Each stroke makes the color lighter. Again, at the end of the wash dip out the excess water with a thirsty brush or towel.
“Art does not reproduce what we see. It makes us see.”
— Paul Klee
Great for Details
Painting wet color directly on dry paper is called wet-on-dry. This is the usual method of painting details. It is more controlled but can be streaky if painting large areas. To do this you must make sure you are painting only in dry areas. If you paint one area next to a wet spot, the two will “bleed” together. You can achieve hard lines and hard edge shapes with this method. You can draw or scrape lines in the dry paper as well. To soften hard lines, you must take a brush loaded with clear water and go over just the edge of a hard shape. This drags some of the paint from the edge and blends it with the clear water of the brush causing a gradation of value.
“The artist must train not only his eye but also his soul.”
— Wassily Kandinsky
What kind of paint do you prefer to paint with?
Great For Wallpaper Designs
Dry-On-Dry Or Dry Brush Technique
Naturally, your brush is not really dry for the dry brush effect. But once you have loaded color onto your brush you blot it on a towel or piece of paper so it is almost dry before painting. You will get a streaked, scruffy look. This works well for tree trunks, rocks, grasses, and as in this picture, textured background like a woven fabric.
“Any art communicates what you’re in the mood to receive.”
— Larry Rivers
If I didn't start painting, I would have raised chickens.— Grandma Roses
Flowers, bushes, and especially trees can be painted quickly and easily with sea sponges. The wool grade sea sponge is the best for this use.
In “Lakeside” I used the sponge for the flowering trees using pinks and oranges. However I forgot one of the cardinal rules of art, not to divide you paper in half with a hard line. Even thought he colors draw your eye into the picture, the hard shoreline leads the eye out of the picture again. I broke up the hard line with a second bank and a rock but it still has the tendency to lead you away from the focal points. Lesson learned.
Lakeside Painting Mistake
“A painting is never finished—it simply stops in interesting places.”
— Paul Gardner
Brush Techniques: Flick
Hold the brush upright and make flicks with the brush. Only the tip of the brush hair touches the paper. The flick makes the point at the end of the pine needles and grasses. This techniques works for bare branches in winter as well.
A Flick Of The Brush
“How important are the visual arts in our society? I feel strongly that the visual arts are of vast and incalculable importance. Of course, I could be prejudiced. I am a visual art.”
— Kermit the Frog
Grasses should always be in clumps or groupings. They never stand in rows like a line of soldiers. They tend to lean one way or another and they are of different heights. In the painting, “Lakeside” the grasses around the rock do just hat. They look natural because they vary in height and color and they are sporadic, some leaning one way and some another.
Another method of making grasses is to scratch the wet paper. Wet the paper, add colors like green, yellow ochre and even Prussian blue, then using the wooden end of the brush, scratch grasses. Remember to lean them and vary the heights. Always paint grasses from the ground up, the way they grow. This way they will have pointed ends and to rounded ones. This appears more natural. By scratching the paper, you are bruising it and that causes the paint to soak into the bruises giving the grasses depth.
“When I sit down to make a sketch from nature, the first thing I try to do is to forget I have ever seen a picture.”— John Constable
These are only a few of the techniques I use in watercolor. There are so many more but I'm saving them for another time. I hope you got something out of this short sharing time. Let me know any questions you may have in the comments below.