ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Copper Calligraphy in Pakistan and the Islamic World.

Updated on June 21, 2019
Stephen P Signorelli profile image

Stephen P Signorelli has traveled the world and has studied the history and culture of many people and religions.

A beautiful example of the form.
A beautiful example of the form.

Copper Calligraphy

Copper Calligraphy, a centuries-old decorative ornamental writing art, comes from Greek civilization. The word calligraphy is also a combination of two Greek words, "kalli" (beautiful) and "graphia" (to write). Since the advent of Islam, his sacred book, the Quran, has been written on different media. The calligraphers of that time used many styles of writing to transcribe the manuscript of the sacred book. Since then, this art has become associated with spirituality and is the most popular form of the design arts in the Muslim world. After acquiring the status of the noblest of the arts, it has been decorated on the ceiling, outside, inside and domes of all the mosques, shrines, buildings and famous monuments of religious importance in Islam.

Note the intricate etchings are perfectly formed.
Note the intricate etchings are perfectly formed.

Importance of Calligraphy to Pakistan and Islam

Calligraphy is an important asset of Pakistani culture. The roots of calligraphy come from Islamic culture, as introduced for the first time by Muslims traders. It is the art of giving letters a harmonious and skillful expression. In Pakistan, they are now turning to drawings, the visual arts rather than words. The Faisal Mosque in Islamabad has an outstanding collection of Islamic calligraphies. It has inner and outer meanings that tell the hidden message of Islam in words.

Calligraphy in Pakistan is mainly available in Arabic because the Koran is in Arabic. Today, calligraphy goes from the handwritten letter to visual art. Calligraphy is widely used to prepare invitations, wedding cards and decoration centerpieces for interior decoration. It is also used to create certificates, birthday invitations, cards and other designs involving the writing of letters.

Flat ball pens are used for calligraphy, round pens and brushes are also used for some types of art of calligraphy. Steel brushes and metal-tipped pens are used for unique decorative purposes. Water-based ink is used for this rather than oil, as in paint. For calligraphy, the high quality paper used allows clear lines because of the consistency of the porosity.

Islamic calligraphy is associated with Islamic geometrical art on the walls and ceilings of the mosque, as in the renowned mosques of Pakistan. Calligraphy is the art of the spiritual world that reveals the expression instead of speaking. It is a highly recognized form of Islamic art because it originates from the language of the Qur'an. Pakistan being a Muslim state has great potential for Islamic calligraphy as a cultural term. Calligraphy is now passed letters to letters in visual arts and you will find it during cultural exhibitions.

Abdul Majeed, Abdul Rehman, Ustad Allah Bakhsh and many others have created miracles in calligraphy. Syed Sirableain Ahmed Naqvi, pride of performance, also called Sutifain Naqqash, was a world-renowned Pakistani artist known for his calligrapher and painter skills. He is considered one of the best painters and calligraphers ever produced by Pakistan. Pakistan is one of the few countries in the world where copper calligraphy is performed. But the most popular and used Perso-Arabic script is 'Nastaleeq'. In Persian and Arabic calligraphy, it has dominated for centuries, as well as naskh, kufi and riqa, other popular styles used to form the Urdu, Persian and Arabic alphabets.

note the subtle but harmonious beauty
note the subtle but harmonious beauty

A brief history of Calligraphy

If we focus on the subcontinent, the history of calligraphy can be divided into five major periods; from Muhammad bin Qasim to Mahmud of Ghazna (93-413 AH / 712-1022 AD), Mahmud of Ghazna to Zahiruddin Babur (413-932 AH / 1022-1526 AD), Mughal period (932-1275 AH / 1526-1857 AD )), British Period (1857 - 1947) and re-emergence after the independence of Pakistan (from 1947 to date). Before independence, the subcontinent experienced the golden period of calligraphy. It has been woven in the subcontinental culture so that each remarkable building of this period bears calligraphic impressions. The interior and exterior of these buildings decorated with calligraphic panels tell the glory of this art at this time. The calligraphers were the first guardians appointed to teach princes, princesses and children of the nobility. This magnificent patronage of royalty to calligraphers has made calligraphy a superior art and has enhanced the prestige of such artists in the masses.

But when the British arrived and the reign of Mughal ended, the royal treatment with this art and the artists also came to an end. Currently, art and artists have made a lot of changes to meet the needs of today's world. Calligraphy is no longer limited to pen and ink on paper. It is woven and included in paintings, sculptures and other works in two and three dimensions. New materials and supports are being tested by modern artists, but all have one thing in common. Love and reverence for the written word.

Masjid Wazir Khan, interior. Lahore, Pakistan.
Masjid Wazir Khan, interior. Lahore, Pakistan. | Source

Thank you for reading this article. This subject was a labor of love for me, and though I am by no means a scholar on it, I hope I piqued your interest in the subject matter. I encourage you to do more research of it on your own, as the art form is fascinating and the history colorful and timeless.

As always, comment below, follow me, and send me fan mail!

Have a great day!

© 2019 Stephen P Signorelli

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • Guckenberger profile image

      Alexander James Guckenberger 

      9 months ago from Maryland, United States of America

      It looks beautiful.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://maven.io/company/pages/privacy

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)