ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Drawing the Human Figure: Perspective & Foreshortening

Updated on October 28, 2014

Perspective Drawing

When viewing the human figure in perspective certain parts of the body may be going in different directions such as a leg directed away from the viewer or an arm directed towards the viewer. When drawing in perspective, you have what’s called a ‘point of interest’. A point of interest is where the vanishing point is going to be. You can also have more than one point of interest. The further away your lines are from the POI, the more they vanish and vice versa. Below are three boxes drawn in perspective with one point of interest:

Now we will examine a perspective drawing with a horizon line and two points of interest:

The angle of the body is descending towards the POI on the right side, in other words, the portion of the body on the right side appears to be smaller than the left side. The red arrows indicate the angles.


Here are a few more perspective drawings for you to look at:

Foreshortening

Another element of perspective drawing is foreshortening. When an object is directed toward you, it creates an optical illusion making the object appear shorter than what it actually is. Below are a few examples of foreshortening.

1a. This example shows an arm leaning on a surface. The upper arm looks shorter in proportion to forearm. That is because the arm is lifted from the shoulder.

1b. A stick figure version of the image is represented. Notice how the stick is drawn from the circle that is the shoulder to the elbow.

2a. This example displays a male lifting dumb-bells. The arm is even more foreshortened than the previous example. Although the forearm is barely visible, you can see portions of the shoulder and forearm.

2b. You can barely see the stick portion of the forearm. It’s indicated by a small line. The circle that is the elbow overlaps the shoulder circle.

1a. This example shows a person’s legs in a sitting position. When a person sits, the thigh is not elliptical, but more of a rounded triangle shape when foreshortened.

1b. In this example, a manikin view is presented. Although the thigh is triangular in foreshortened view, the basic 3D shape is a cylinder.

2a. Human Figure; 2b. Stick Figure; 2c. Manikin Figure
2a. Human Figure; 2b. Stick Figure; 2c. Manikin Figure

The last example shows a person in motion (walking). Notice the hips are a bit tilted and the lower leg on the left side is slightly foreshortened because it is bent.

This lesson was one of the more challenging lessons. It is recommended that you study and practice as much as you need to before you begin drawing in perspective. In the final lesson, we will have the opportunity to do just that.

♦Key Points to Remember

-Perspectives have a point of interest where images become larger as they lengthen from the point & smaller or vanish towards the point.

-Foreshortening is when an object appears smaller than what is actually is.

-The more the arm or leg is foreshortened, the greater the illusion and it will appear shorter in proportion to the rest of the body.

-Have patience

-Don’t be hard on yourself & have fun!!

-Keep practicing!

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)