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How to make Soap/ Making homemade soap
Sop Making Equipment
You need to first buy all the chemicals and equipment you need before starting out your soap production. They are necessary for your safety and easy candling of the corrosive materials.
When handled right it is easy to do, some of the equipment you need are
1 A gas burner, either industrial home burner or kerosene stove.
2 A preparation Tank, it could be a large non stick stainless steel pot. The blending tank could be fitted with a stirrer
3 A wooden Paddle
4 A wooden blending stick
5 A weighing Implement very important because you need to make precise measurement. A weighing Scale
6 A wide mouth jug to use when pouring the mixture to gather
7 Thermometer to measure the temperature of the solutions
8 A Wooden Cast where the liquid soap would form and harden. Some Moulds
9 A cutting implement or very sharp knife
10 A leather Hand glove to handle the chemical
11 A face mask to avoid breathing in the fumes
As you can see from the above list soap making though easy is serious business. Adequate care is needed even before you mix your chemicals together.
Now you have gathered all the equipment, next you need to buy the chemicals that go into soap production.If you have kids make sure the chemical are properly labeled and kept SAFE.
Where there is no access or make sure you buy just enough to use the entire liquid in one preparation so no chemical is left unused.
How to Make Soap
What exactly is soap, it is a compound we use every day and we have become utterly dependent on the product. The foaming and cleaning agent helps use run are lives with the minimum of ease we are so used to it that it is hardly noticed.
But if we take stock of how much we spend on our cleanliness yearly we would be surprised. What if you can make the compound at home and save costs by only spending a little on raw materials or packaging.
You keep some for home use and sell to small departmental stores or neighbors. You not only reduce the huge amount you spend on toiletries you also find your self making some money, who say it can not turn into a major business.
Soap is a cleaning agent that has a long hydrocarbon tail that dissolves grease made from fat and natural oils with a mix of sodium hydroxide a reacting agent that is soluble in water. I think I have covered the basic description of the compound.
Soap come in various shapes and sizes, cleaning ability and aroma/colors. it becomes easy to handle after it has been cured a process whereby the forming soap is left for close to a month before usage after this period it is safe to use and can last for several years.
Soaps general uses include and not limited to washing dishes cutlery, clothes, and personal hygiene. Others are to clean dirty surfaces, washing our car/cars and other uses you all are to familiar with. They are also used in other industrial applications giving the compound a pride of place in our every day lives.
How do we make soap?
Warning; The chemicals that goes into soap production are not chemicals to be trifled with. They are highly toxic, dangerous and can cause severe bodily harm if not carefully handled.
it is not advisable to try making soap if you are under 18 years have poor coordination, the chemical reactions are extreme and great care is needed. Now that I have separated the men from the boys we can proceed with soap making
soft smooth skin and Ultra-mild formula
Raw Materials Needed
Some raw materials
The major raw materials needed should be purchased a few days before mixing them into a soap solution. The following chemical are needed
Caustic soda is a strong Alkaline made of Sodium Hydroxide a highly toxic chemical its structural composition is NaOH and it an inorganic compound that can severely burn skin on contact. So at all time avoid any direct contact with this agent. The fumes can also be harmful to the eyes.
*liquid Sodium Silicate P84
Some soap producers use this chemical in the production of soap but it is not a most use agent
*Palm Kernel Oil PKO
The Palm Kernel oil is edible plant oil derived from the Elaeis gulneenis or commonly known as the Palm tree is native to Africa. The palm kernel oil should not be mistaken for another derivative of the palm tree with is the palm oil which is also edible.
The palm oil is an unhealthy fat based red liquid used for cooking and frying just like ground nut oil. Palm oil is gotten from the fruits while palm kernel oil is gotten from the nut or a seed extract.
Coconut oil is an edible oil extract from the kernel of coconut it is a fatty compound that has been harnessed for industrial usage for health and skin issues as well as a controversial aid in weight loss programs.
The coconut is obtained from the coconut tree which predominantly grows by sea by beach front and close to abundant water like swamps. The coconut oil is a major ingredient in soap production; it gives the soap better quality and lathers.
Soda ash is an anhydrous sodium carbonate; some people put this compound in soap but not always necessary.
*Dyes and Perfumes
Dyes are used to give the soap some coloring while perfume is to add pleasant aroma.
You are required to measure the ingredients precisely if you want to achieve soap production and not a viscous agent.
Coconut Oil 24 Ounces
Olive Oil 24 Ounces both substances are usually the same measurement
Vegetable Shortening 38 Ounces
Sodium hydroxide 12 Ounces
Essential Oils 4 Ounces
Distilled Water 32 Ounces
Create a Work Area
The work area is necessary because of the compounds you are dealing with especially the sodium hydroxide. If you have an aerated barn or outhouse you can fit it with a gas burner and a table where you can produce the soap.
Some people use their kitchen but unless you have done it before and know what to expect. I don’t see it as a prudent idea.
In your work area place the material needed are stainless steel bowl, gloves, safety goggles, scale to weigh compounds. You need a wide mouth kettle to pour concoction, plastic pitcher, wooden paddle to stir 2 thermometers to measure the temperature simultaneously, towels plastic moulds and the chemicals.
1 Measure out your 12 \Ounces of Caustic Soda. Make sure your sodium hydroxide is exactly 12 Ounces because soap making is a precise art.
2 Measure 32 Ounces of water and pour into your stainless pot
3 Add the sodium hydroxide to the distilled water pour slowly while you mix the solution into the water continue to stir the mixture until the caustic soda completely dissolves in the water.
While doing this process make sure your work space is properly ventilated to allow the fumes escape. The Caustic soda reacts very fast with the solvent so pouring it gently while mixing ensures it becomes totally soluble.
Avoid the fumes that emanate when doing this process, if you have a face mask you can wear it with your goggles. (Looking like a mad scientist). Then set the totally dissolved mixture aside for it to cool naturally.
4 measure 24 Ounces of Coconut Oil
5 Measure 38 Ounces of vegetable shortening
6 Measure 24 Ounces of Olive Oil
Place a large stainless pot on a low or medium heat and pour the coconut oil then the vegetable oil stir properly then add the olive oil. The mixture should be constantly stirred until the solution is a complete blend.
When you have achieved the blend remove the mixture from the heat and place separate from the sodium and water mixture. Now you have two mixtures.
Now before you can mix the two separate mixtures you need to get the art the same temperature, that is why you have 2 thermometers, the recommended temperature to attempt a mix can be between 94-98f (Fahrenheit). Once the 2 mixtures are the same temperature then you can continue the process.
A beginners guide to making handmade soap
Mixing the Soap
Mixing the brew
When both mixtures are on the same temperature you pour the soluble caustic soda in a steady action into the oil mix. Then stir the mixture continually for about 20 minutes till you see a consistency and tracing in the mixture.
A tough blender can be used to achieve this process if you do not have the physical energy to mix, the blender will achieve consistency in about 8 minutes of mixing. Tracing is important without visible signs of it you would have to put your mixture aside for about 10 minutes before attempting another round of mixing.
You soap mixture has to smell nice so at this stage you can pour you essential oil, perfume into the mix. By pouring your essential oil the mixture would begin the process of setting which happens very quickly so you should have prepared your wooden molds where you pour the mixture. Remember you pour only 4 Ounces of the oil.
Your soap molds can be bought from a specialty shop or supper market or online. Prepare the mold by lining with parchment paper then pour the solution into the mold, liquid soap is very dangerous so perform this act with care.
With both gloved arms pick up the mold shake and drop to seal any air pockets that may hide inside the mixture. Cover the mold with cardboard or cover the ready made molds with its lid, cover with thick cloth or towels to allow saponification of the soap, leave the liquid compound for about 36 hours.
The soap begins to solidify by becoming a gel like substance then after about 14 hours becomes solid lets say the process takes 48 hours. To know if your mixture was proper the top layer should be covered with a light white ash substance but if it has a layer of oily liquid it is dangerous and a waste of your time.
The compound with this film of oil shows that the compound did not bind properly and are still in there raw dangerous state.
What causes bad soap mixture is when the 2 separate mixtures are not mixed when they are at the same temperature or during the mixing process they are under mixed
Curing the soap
Congratulations if you soap has a white flaky substance on its surface that means you have successfully made soap, now you turn the block upside down so the soap falls unto a cutting surface, check you soap carefully so there are no holes or patches where raw chemicals may still reside.
The next step is to cut the soap with a sharp knife or use a binding wire/string. Then place the soap on a clean surface and leave for 3 weeks turn over and leave another 3 weeks. It takes about 6 weeks for the soap to go through the saponification process and get cured. A perfectly made soap is tough hard and foams well and can be used for house hold chores like washing dishes and dirty surfaces.
If you are making the soap for commercial purposes you can create a package with the components clearly written on the label, the choice of pricing is up to you, if you are using it only for home use find a cardboard box and store your soap.
Soap is an important item in our entire home learning how to make the product would help you in the long run save some money because the amount of soap you produce could last up to 6 months worth of supply. When embarking on this venture remember care and common sense is important because you are handling a volatile liquid. Soap works well with either hot or cold showers and is ideal for washing plates, pots and pans giving the humble compound a very important role in our everyday lives.
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