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Huacas, Molas and the Native Art of Panama

Updated on July 10, 2014

I grew up in a household where the arts were held in high esteem. Even though we were not a middle class family, my mother’s love of dance, literature and music and my dad’s of the visual arts was evident throughout the house.

After I left home and went to my first duty station in Panama in 1979, I became interested in some of the local art. Since then, whenever I’ve traveled to another country or part of the U.S., I’ve made it a point to buy some art piece that reflects the native culture.

My first purchase in Panama was three huacas. Later, I picked up some molas sewn by the Kuna Indians.

The golden huaca

Very little is known of the ancient Indians of Panama; they left behind no splendid city or written history. What is known of them comes from the artifacts found in their burial sites. Their belief in an afterlife led to the burial of jewelry, weapons, tools and other possessions to help them transition to the other world.

A clue to their skill as artisans can be found in the extraordinary objects that also were buried, the “golden huaca.” The term huaca (“wa-ka”) comes from the early Spanish word “huacal” meaning an Indian mound. An artifact recovered from the burial ground is called a huaca.

Today, huacas are crafted using the lost wax process, the same method the pre-Columbian Indians used. This method allows anything that can be modeled in wax to be transmuted into metal.

REPROSA Costa del Este, Panama:
Costa del Este, Panama

get directions

Medicine man, a Huaca from Panama
Medicine man, a Huaca from Panama | Source
A huaca from Panama called "Music Man"
A huaca from Panama called "Music Man" | Source

The medicine man, the eagle and the music man

I first discovered huacas on a shopping trip to Panama City that I took with several other women from the barracks. We stopped in Reprosas, a jewelry store downtown. I was fascinated with these replicas of ancient artifacts and bought the Medicine Man. It’s actually a brooch but I had it framed in a shadow box. I returned to the store twice more, subsequently buying first the Eagle and then the Music Man.

I don’t remember what I paid for them – this was before gold shot up in price and I’m sure they aren’t worth a lot today. But I don’t buy art or handcrafted items for their monetary value. I buy them for their beauty and what they say to my soul.

"The Eagle" a huaca from Panama
"The Eagle" a huaca from Panama | Source

Molas and the Kuna Indians of Panama

One weekend my husband and I took a puddle-jumper to the San Blas Islands, an archipelago made up of about 378 islands and cays. The inhabitants are the Kuna Indians, Panama’s indigenous people. Originally, they wore few clothes and decorated their bodies with colorful designs. When missionaries came along and the Kuna began to wear clothes, they followed their body painting designs in their clothing.

Part of the traditional dress of a Kuna woman is a mola panel blouse and it’s an important symbol of Kuna culture. The Kunas rebelled in 1925 when the Panama government tried to prevent Kuna women from wearing their traditional mola costume. The revolt led to the legal recognition of Kuna Yala as a semi-autonomous territory.

San Blas Islands, Panama

San Blas Islands, Panama:
San Blas Islands, Panama

get directions

A mola from Panama. They often have animal or geometric designs
A mola from Panama. They often have animal or geometric designs | Source
A close up of a section of the mola.
A close up of a section of the mola. | Source

The craft and art of molas

Molas are made using a reverse appliqué technique and can take two weeks to six months, depending on the complexity of the design. Several layers of different colored cloth are sewn together. The mola’s design is created as parts of the layers are cut away. Typically, the largest pattern is cut from the top layer with subsequent layers revealing progressively smaller patterns. The edges of the layers are then turned under and sewn down.

Molas became an art form when Kuna women began to have access to store-bought yard goods. The designs of molas vary widely, picking up themes from modern life as well as Kuna legends and culture, but the most traditional themes are geometric designs.

The quality of a mola is determined by such factors as the:

  • number of layers
  • fineness of stitching
  • evenness and width of cutouts
  • addition of details such as zigzag borders, lattice-work or embroidery
  • general artistic merit of the design and color combination

Mola panels can be used in many ways – framed as art or made into pillows and place mats. Several can be sewn together to make a wall hanging. I ended up buying the mola panel here that I had framed but we also bought nine more panels that we had made into a wall hanging. Unfortunately it was so large we never had the wall space to hang it and it has been stored in my cedar chest for years.

If you ever do any traveling, I encourage you to pick up something native from the area, something that speaks to you. It will not only be a reminder of your trip but also a thing of beauty you can pass along to others.

Read about some of the other art pieces I own in Collecting Art is a Labor of Love and Sand Paintings, Flint Knives and Native American Art.


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    • Danette Watt profile imageAUTHOR

      Danette Watt 

      7 years ago from Illinois

      Glad you enjoyed the hub and learned something new. I love art that can double as jewelry as these huacas can.

    • HubPages profile image


      7 years ago from San Francisco, CA

      I had never heard of huacas or molas. Thanks for introducing me to some new art!

    • Danette Watt profile imageAUTHOR

      Danette Watt 

      7 years ago from Illinois

      @ Phil - I'm glad you enjoyed the hub and look forward to reading a hub by you about YOUR acquisitions on a trip :)

      @Cara - I'd love to see what you bought. Quincy and I are into visiting archeological/anthropological museums and such. When we were in Hawaii a few years ago visiting CJ, he and I visited the Polynesian Cultural Center. The boys were quick to turn that down in favor of kayaking or something like that. Glad you enjoyed it.

    • cardelean profile image


      7 years ago from Michigan

      When Alex and I were in Greece for our honeymoon we visited some ancient archeological sites. I also purchased some things that were replicas of art pieces from ancient times.

      This was a truly rich hub. I learned so much reading it. You did a great job of sharing the history, culture, and process of these beautiful pieces of art.

    • Phil Plasma profile image

      Phil Plasma 

      7 years ago from Montreal, Quebec

      Nice idea, acquiring art from a variety of places that we visit. I've done this once, but your hub encourages me to try to do it more often.

    • Denise Handlon profile image

      Denise Handlon 

      7 years ago from North Carolina

      Danette, don't forget to add the 'contest' tag to this lovely hub for the JULY contest. You did post this hub within the right time frame.

    • Danette Watt profile imageAUTHOR

      Danette Watt 

      7 years ago from Illinois

      @ Dee - I'd forgotten I bought one for you and will have to look at it if I'm up there later this month.

      @Alicia - thanks for reading and I'm glad you found it interesting. Panama is definitely worth a visit if you get the chance to go.

    • AliciaC profile image

      Linda Crampton 

      7 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you for the information about huacas and molas. These are topics that I knew nothing about before I read your interesting hub. I'd love to travel to Panama and learn more about the country.

    • Denise Handlon profile image

      Denise Handlon 

      7 years ago from North Carolina

      Danette-great write! Voted up and across- I remember the huacas you brought back for me and still have it in MI in my condo. :)

    • Danette Watt profile imageAUTHOR

      Danette Watt 

      7 years ago from Illinois

      @dfager - I was 22 when I was stationed there (Navy) and I probably did not appreciate it as much as I should or could have. I wouldn't mind going back either.

      @HBN - Glad you enjoyed the hub and learned something from it. Good idea about loaning it out, I never thought of that. I'll have to keep my ears open for an opportunity to do so because I hate to have them packed away. We also have a 6'square alpaca/vicuna/llama rug packed away in the attic because I have no place for that anymore either.

    • Happyboomernurse profile image

      Gail Sobotkin 

      7 years ago from South Carolina

      What a cool hub. The title drew me in because I had no idea what huacas and molas are. It was interesting reading about them and I loved your pictures and the unusual way you chose to display the items you purchased after you came home.

      Maybe some day you'll have a wall large enough for all the mola panels you bought, or you could loan them out to a school or museum or public building for display.

    • dfager profile image


      7 years ago from Federal Way, Washington

      I bought molas in Panama while I was stationed there in about 1982-84. I loved the beauty of Panama so much that I hope I can one day visit again. Thanks for the cultural information!


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