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Tips on How To Paint Sky Behind Trees, or "Sky Holes"
Sky Holes. What Are They?
Sky holes are simply the negative spaces we see in the structure of the tree. They occur where there is a break in the foliage, often alongside the trunks and branches.
They are areas of light that break through a tree.
Even if technically what you see are patches of the sky, you can't paint them the same color as the sky above.
Elements that Make Painted Sky Holes Believable
- Placement - Where you choose to paint the sky holes inside trees.
- Variety – Sky holes are irregular and organic, not all the same or equally spaced.
- Color – It’s usually duller than the color surrounding the tree.
- Value – It’s darker than the sky.
- Temperature – The color of the sky holes is cooler than the color of the surrounding sky.
Where to Paint the Sky Between Branches
The trick to painting believable sky holes is in their placement.
If you observe trees around you, you’ll notice that sky holes are usually in between masses of leaves.
Look at the structure of the tree you are painting, and find those voluminous areas. Right in between the leafy areas it’s where you put the sky holes.
As always, “less is more.” A few strategically placed sky holes will depict the character of the tree far better than reproducing every one.
Before Starting to Paint the Globs of Sky on the Tree
Stop: slow down and take your time. Rushing leads to messy sky holes that don't always make sense.
- Squint: Squinting simplifies your reference tree and allows the light areas (the sky holes) to become more obvious. Look where they occur and what shape they are. They are not always round holes or squiggles.
- Search: Find the sky holes and put them in. Place them carefully. Try not to rush.
- Avoid squiggles, circles or "ornaments". It is advisable to keep at least one edge of the sky hole soft to replicate the refraction of light as it fights its way through the tree. Keep the shapes organic and varied. Avoid squiggles or perfectly geometric shapes.
The "ornament" effect occurs when the sky hole value is too light or the edges are all too sharp. The marks look stuck on the tree rather than breaks in the foliage.
How About You?
Do you find painting sky holes challenging?
Rule to Adjust Sky Color: Make it Darker, Duller, and Cooler (DDC)
You cannot use the same paint color that you use for the sky around the tree, to render the sky between foliage.
If you paint the holes the same pastel color as the sky around, they’ll appear too light, ultimately appearing like Christmas lights.
In between the darker areas of the trees, the pure sky color would look too bright in comparison
It needs to be Darker, Duller, Cooler (DDC).
The reason why the sky holes require a slightly different paint color is due to the fact that what we see as holes - the spaces between the leaves and branches where the sky shows through - do not always show a clear view of the sky.
There are small branches and leaves within these spaces that may not be apparent to the naked eye, but act as screen for the light that comes through. As this occurs, the intensity of the light, both in value and color, is weakened.
The smaller the hole, the more small branches and leaves are filtering the light. To visualize the difference, imagine looking through a glass window (the big hole) and a screened window (the small hole).
The sky seen through the screen should be painted a bit darker, duller, and cooler than the clear sky.
Do You Paint Sky or Branches First?
There's no right or wrong approach on what to paint first. In general, I like to work from background to foreground, which means that I like to paint the sky first, thinly, and then paint the tree branches on top.
Trees over sky don't form sharp edges. The leaves and the small branches create lost and soft edges. When the paint is still wet, it's easier to blend the edges and keep them soft.
You can paint the area where tree and sky meets by mixing some sky color with the tree color, or scumbling.
Every color's appearance changes i relations to the colors next to it.
We refer to this different perception of a color in relation to the colors surrounding it as simultaneous contrast.
Due to simultaneous contrast, if we paint both sky and holes the same color, the color placed in the holes, surrounded by darker colors of the tree, will look much lighter in comparison. It’s a visual phenomenon.
Because the light coming through a sky hole is passing through a reduced aperture, it loses linearity of the light waves and results in appearing less bright than the sky itself. It is called diffraction.
I don't consider myself a master artist, but I enjoy sharing with others what I know. I wrote this article hoping that it will help beginner artists in their creative process, not because I believe I “know” how to paint.
I hope you found it useful and enjoyable. Happy painting! : )
© 2016 Robie Benve