ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Sobha Singh and other Famous Artists of Andretta

Updated on September 4, 2019
SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile image

I am a lover of art. The ancient art inspires me the most, as it has come down to us after the hard work of centuries.

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Soni Mahiwal- The masterpiece of Sobha SinghAndretta Village in Himachal Pradesh Wall Art at Andretta
Soni Mahiwal- The masterpiece of Sobha Singh
Soni Mahiwal- The masterpiece of Sobha Singh | Source
Andretta Village in Himachal Pradesh
Andretta Village in Himachal Pradesh | Source
 Wall Art at Andretta
Wall Art at Andretta | Source


Andretta, a small village in the foothills of Dhauladhar ranges in the Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh is a place of pilgrimage for the artists. Located on the way to Chandial, uphill along the valley and a few miles from Palampur, the beautiful place provides a fascinating view of the Dhauladhar Ranges and the adjoining valley. The drive to the place leads through the paddy fields, groves, and orchards.

It was Mrs. Nora Richards who discovered the place for the outside world in as early as 1934 AD. She invited B.C. Sanyal, the well-known painter and sculptor and Professor Jaidayal who had been her husband’s pupil from Lahore. Later Prof Jai Dayal, G. D. Sondhi, painter Sobha Singh and Farida Bedi too came to Andretta and built mud houses there.

Gurcharan Singh the renowned potter and some other artists too came over to the place to make it as their regular and seasonal home. But the small village has become synonymous with Sardar Sobha Singh and his studio than anybody else.

The House of Norah Richards
The House of Norah Richards

Norah Richards

Andretta would not have been what it is but for Norah Richards. She believed in simple living and minimum needs and regarded the epic “Leaves of Grass” by Walt Whitman as her bible. She experimented in the art of simple living and solitude at Andretta.

Indeed the village provides solitude, not the doomed silence of desolation. The place is a living manifestation for meditation. The majestic surroundings succinctly captivate the mood of the visitor in such a steadfast way that the imprint left on his mind is of paramount tranquility. An artist or one who is sensitive to the things of beauty will take no time to come under the solemn spell of this quiet and dreamy land.

Short Biography

Norah Richards or Norah Mary Hutman (29 October 1876 – 3 March 1971) was an Irish lady popularly known as the Lady Gregory of the Punjab.

She received her education in Belgium, Oxford University, and Sydney and began as an amateur actress at a very young age at British theater before becoming professional.

She came to India in 1908 with her husband Mr. Philip Ernest Richards, He was appointed a Professor of English in the Dayal Singh College of Lahore. The founder of the college, Sardar Dyal Singh Majithia was an ardent follower of Brahmo Samaj, which resembled the Unitarian Christian movement of which Philip was the follower.

She devoted herself to the theatrical and cultural activities in the college at Lahore, the then cultural center of Punjab. She actively worked for the theosophical movement and home-rule agitation of Dr. Annie Besant.

She produced the first Punjabi play, Dulhan or "The Bride", written by her pupil I.C. Nanda in 1914. She translated and directed several plays and worked for the cultural regeneration if India. She encouraged the students to write and perform in their own one-act plays.

After becoming a widow in 1920, she returned to England and was punished for opposing the tarnish India policy there. Thus she shifted to Banuri in Kangra Hills in 1925 and came to Andretta, a decade later.

She purchased the 15 acres land of a British army officer who wanted it to be an abode of an ailing relation. She named it Woodlands Estate, built a mud house named Chameli Niwas with a thatched roof for her-self in local style and settled there for her aesthetic pursuits.

The  Open Air Theater at Andretta
The Open Air Theater at Andretta

Theaterical Pursuits Of Nora Richards

She was the main guiding force behind the movement of Punjabi drama. She built an open air theatre and started a drama school of which produced the famous Punjabi dramatists like Balwant Gargi, I C Nanda, Dr. Harcharan Singh and Gurcharan Singh etc. In the month of March every year, she was used to organize a week long dramatic festival for the students and the villagers in an open-air theater in which the Indian film stars Prithvi Raj Kapoor and Balraj Sahni regularly participated.

She developed the idea of Rural Theater as a powerful didactic and artistic medium for rustic culture. She wrote about social reform dealing with the ways, life and traditions of common folk. Several people helped her with the production of her scripts.

Till her retirement at the age of 80, she conducted dramatic shows and held training courses in writing, acting and producing of the plays.

Awards and Works

She was called as the great-grandmother of Punjabi theater. She was bestowed the honorary degree of D. Lit., in 1970 by the Punjabi University for her contribution to Punjabi culture and drama.

In the same year, she published, “In Commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the passing of Philip Ernest Richard”. Another book, “The Country Life” earned her several admirers.

She also wrote newspaper articles and painted watercolors. The museum of the Punjabi University, Patiala houses some of her rare belongings.

Nora as a Person

Nora led a life full of simplicity, cleanliness, and beauty. She would dig the soil of her vegetable garden, tend and water the plants herself. She divided the work-time of her servants into hukka-or narghile break, tea-break, rest-break and meals break.

She had dreamt of an artist village here, but the dream has not come true even though some artists cooperated and made it a permanent or temporary abode.

Jai Dayal

Jai Dayal had been Norah's student in dramatics at Lahore. After retirement as an English teacher in the Government College of Dharmsala, Dayal Singh settled in Andretta as a near neighbor of Nora Richards.

Prithviraj Kapoor, the great actor of Indian cinema used to visit Andretta and stay with Professor Jai Dayal who had been his tutor at Edwards College, Peshawar, and his stage mentor.

Bhabesh Chandra Sanyal, the father of Modern Art in India (1902-2003)
Bhabesh Chandra Sanyal, the father of Modern Art in India (1902-2003) | Source

B.C. Sanyal

The former secretary of Lalit Kala Academy, Bhabesh Chander Sanyal (22 April 1901 – 9 August 2003) was the great painter and sculptor. He was the grandmaster of Indian art. He learned the art of sculptor from his mother who was an expert doll maker. The bust of Lala Lajpat Rai made by him at Lahore in 1929 before the session of

The bust of Lala Lajpat Rai made by him at Lahore in 1929 before the session of Indian national Congress gave him wide recognition. Thereafter he became the vice-principal at Mayo School of Arts at Lahore, from where the students Krishan Khanna and Satish Gujral passed out to become the prominent modernist painters. On being considered as a political threat, the then British Govt in India forced him to resign in 1936. Then in 1937 he established his Studio-School cum Lahore College of Art and taught there till 1947.

On being considered as a political threat, the then British Govt in India forced him to resign in 1936. Then in 1937 he established his Studio-School cum Lahore College of Art and taught there till 1947.

He became interested in Andretta and built a hut in the woodlands. He frequently visited the place and was touched by the poverty in the region. He established the Artist Resort and Nora Centre for the Arts at Andretta. He was so impressed by Nora Richards that he painted a portrait of her. Other famous paintings of Sanyal are,

Other famous paintings of Sanyal are, The flying scarecrow, Cowherd, Despair and Way to peace. He was awarded the honorary citizenship of Baltimore in the USA in 1989. A special postage stamp on his birth centenary in 2000 was released by the Government of India.

Thus Andretta became the center of cultural and theatrical activities for the whole generation of modern Indian artists. Even Gurucharan Singh the famous poet also joined the rank of the art circle and started his summer workshops at Andretta. He remained in touch with the place and regularly visited Andretta.

Andretta Pottery

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Pottery Work at Andretta
Pottery Work at Andretta
Pottery Work at Andretta

The Pottery of Andretta

The Andretta Pottery and Craft Society provided a platform to the potters in 1952 and is still perfecting the art of pottery by innovative designs of attractive earthenware with rangoli or painted styles. It offers a 3-month course for the students in pottery.

The Terracotta Museum established by the society preserves the art of pottery and the objects made of clay. The works of local village potters from the surrounding regions the pottery from around the world including that from Mexico, England and Holland are the main collections of the museum.

The people from India and abroad come here to have a glimpse of clay utensils, large pitchers, cups, and lamps. The museum is successfully popularizing the art of Andretta pottery to the outer world.

Sobha Singh- The Great Master

Sobha Singh was the pride of the Himalayas and a painter of love. He had descended from the vaulted galaxies as a nonchalant ascetic to live in the world of colors like his creator. The great artist and the glory of Andretta seemed to live at a place far away in space and greatly removed from the confluence of time and mortality.

Short Biography

Sobha Singh was born on 29th November 1901 at Sri Hargobindpur at Gurdaspur district of Punjab in India. At a very tender age in 1916, he joined one year course in art and craft in Industrial School at Amritsar. Thereafter in 1919, he joined the British Army as a draughtsman and worked in Iraq. Here he learned European paintings and mastered the art by self-practice. In 1923, he left the army and came to Amritsar. He went to Lahore in 1926 and came to Delhi in 1931. He visited Norah Richards in 1936 while looking for a peaceful home to carry on his aesthetic pursuits.

Again in 1946, he went back to Lahore and opened a studio but left the place in 1947 after the partition of India and reached Andretta in 1949. Here he took a house on rent and then persuaded the village head to sell him a piece of land in the jungle. He built a hut which later on became his house. He stayed at Andretta for the rest of his life and painted several paintings till he died on 22 August 1986 at Chandigarh.

Love paintings of Sobha Singh

The famous love paintings of Sobha Singh are that of a great legend of Sohini- Mahiwal, Sassi- Punnu, Heer Ranjha, the last desire of Mumtaz Mahal or the origin of Tajmahal etc.

As early as in 1929, the painter was drawn to romantic folk tales of Punjab, especially the love story of Sassi-Punnu. He painted Sassi being lost in the sand dunes of Sind while running in search of her lover Punnu, who had been forcibly carried away from her. Clad in salwar kameez, she was painted as a charming young girl symbolizing the ideal Indian womanhood. She was devoted and loyal to her lover for whom she died after suffering great hardships at the hands of the tyrants. This selfless love story had inspired the poets and the masses at that time.

The most admired and sought after painting of Sohni- Mahiwal was a favorite theme of several Mughal and Rajput paintings in India. Sobha Singh painted it five times and the first one was in 1937. The second one of 1944 is in Pakistan, while that of 1948 was sold. The fourth was bought by Maharaja Karan Singh of Jammu and Kashmir and the last one of 1978 adorns the Andretta art gallery. The merging of the lovers into a single whole is an aesthetic representation in with the delicate figure of Sohni peeps out of the wet head cover clinging to the torso reveals her physical charm and feminine beauty.

The Love Painting of Sobha Singh

Heer Ranjha
Heer Ranjha | Source
Click thumbnail to view full-size
Sotheby's To Auction Sardar Sobha Singh Painting of Maharajah Ranjit Singh in New YorkThe Painting of Guru Nanak by Sobha SinghPainting of Guru Nanak
Sotheby's To Auction Sardar Sobha Singh Painting of Maharajah Ranjit Singh in New York
Sotheby's To Auction Sardar Sobha Singh Painting of Maharajah Ranjit Singh in New York | Source
The Painting of Guru Nanak by Sobha Singh
The Painting of Guru Nanak by Sobha Singh | Source
Painting of Guru Nanak
Painting of Guru Nanak
Self portrait by Sobha Singh
Self portrait by Sobha Singh | Source

The Portraits of Sobha Singh

The portrait painting still remains an art of the highest order, despite all the developments in photography. Unlike portrait, no photograph could provide an idea of the character of the persona or the color tones.

The portrait painting was the forte of Sobha Singh and he did several portraits of Indian kings and princes. He painted the portraits Mahatma Gandhi, Maharajah Ranjit Singh, Sardar Bhagat Singh, Jawaharlal Lal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Norah Richard and an unfinished one of Bhagat Ravi Das.

He was a great artist with few equals in portraiture. His portraits are lifelike, fresh, detailed and exquisite with a divine blend of human characters. His portraits of the Gurus came to limelight in India and abroad when they were published in almost all the leading papers of the country on quincentenary celebrations.

Sobha Singh painted on canvas a large number of outstanding portraits in oil paints. He achieved the delicacy of treatment and minuteness of decorative details even with this medium like Kangra miniatures.

“This art (Modern Art ) is a meaningless job, a wicked and unholy practice to entrap the illiterate people".

— Sobha Singh

Religious Paintings of Sobha Singh

Click thumbnail to view full-size
The Sikh GuruGuru Gobind SinghLord KrishnaJesus ChristBhagat Ravi DasGuru Amardass jiGuru Hargobind jiGuru Teg Bahadur jiLord RamaBaba Farid
The Sikh Guru
The Sikh Guru | Source
Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh | Source
Lord Krishna
Lord Krishna | Source
Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ | Source
Bhagat Ravi Das
Bhagat Ravi Das | Source
Guru Amardass ji
Guru Amardass ji | Source
Guru Hargobind ji
Guru Hargobind ji | Source
Guru Teg Bahadur ji
Guru Teg Bahadur ji | Source
Lord Rama
Lord Rama | Source
Baba Farid
Baba Farid | Source

The Religious Paintings of Sobha Singh

The panorama of his religious paintings includes that of the Hindu Gods, Rama, Krishna, the Jesus Christ, the ten Sikh Gurus, the Sheikh Farid, and the goddess of dawn.

The Kalki Avtar or the incarnation of Lord Vishnu that would occur in the present age of darkness in Kaliyuga like “The Second Coming” is one of the greatest works of Sobha Singh. It has been predicted that Kalki would take birth in the house of a Brahman, named Vishnu Yash. He would ride a white horse, his sword would emanate flames of fire and he will kill the evil doers to establish truth, religion, and justice.

The Museum at Chandigarh houses the best paintings of Guru Nanak Dev as painted by Sobha Singh. The earliest painting of Guru Nanak Dev as a child was painted in 1934, which shows the influence of medieval Christian art. The painting shows the Guru in the lap of his mother Tripta midst the women of the household, and lord Shiva and Rama showering the flowers on the holy child in the background with goddesses Sita and Saraswati.

Another portrait of Guru Nanak painted in 1937 shows the reverend in a mystic trance with half-closed eyes. Most of the Sikh families have put this painting in their homes to be worshiped as an icon.

His Greatest religious masterpiece of late 50's is "Guru Nanak" in the blessing pose. The lines on the palm and the entire hand of Guru Nanak were drawn after studying the horoscope of the Guru. For this purpose, the renowned palmist Pundit Agnihotri of Hamirpur district in Himachal Pradesh was consulted.

Most of the people believe that the painting made in honor of the 500th birth anniversary of Guru Nanak in 1969 is the actual portrait of the Guru.

The Sobha Singh Art Gallery

Sobha Singh was greatly impressed by Subhash Chander Bose and used the pseudonym Subhash after his name and even named his studio as Subhash studio.

The people come to Andretta to see the art gallery of Sardar Sobha Singh especially the memorable masterpiece of Sohini Mahiwal. The gallery in the large room of the house has a selected collection of about 40 original paintings Sobha Singh.

In 2011, the Sobha Singh museum has been added to the gallery which contains more than 100 rare photographs and the personal belongings of the painter. Even after his death, the rom where he lived has been properly maintained as it was during his lifetime.

The paper or canvas reprints of his paintings are available in the sale counter of the gallery.

Women in the Paintings of Sobha Singh

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Sohini to cross the river with the help of a pitcher to meet MahiwalPunjabi Bride Kangra BrideBeauty after BathThe Gaddan or shepherdess
Sohini to cross the river with the help of a pitcher to meet Mahiwal
Sohini to cross the river with the help of a pitcher to meet Mahiwal | Source
Punjabi Bride
Punjabi Bride | Source
 Kangra Bride
Kangra Bride | Source
Beauty after Bath
Beauty after Bath
The Gaddan or shepherdess
The Gaddan or shepherdess | Source


Sobha Singh was awarded Padam Shree by the President of India in 1983. The Information and broadcasting Ministry released a film named Painter of people on his 75th birthday. He was awarded D.Lit. by Punjabi University Patiala.

In 1974, he was declared the State Artist by the Punjab Govt. The states of Punjab and Himachal have instituted art awards in his name. In 1984, a documentary on his achievements was made by BBC. The High School of Andretta and the Palampur-Andretta road have been named after him.

His birth centenary in 2001 was celebrated in US, UK, Canada, India, Australia and several other countries and a postage stamp too was issued in his name in India.

Sculpture of Prithvi Raj Kapoor


Women in the Paintings of Sobha Singh

Sobha Singh depicted the dignity of womanhood and the glimpses of the brides of Punjab and Himachal. The painting of a young bride sitting in a palanquin with a cuckoo in front reflects the charm of the folk song of Kangra, which goes as, "bhabi cuckoo Keehan bolda" or sister-in-law how the cuckoo sings.

Another painting of innocent and shy Kangra bride sitting on the floor with two wicker baskets on her right is aesthetic in charm.

Other famous paintings of Sobha Singh are the "The Sisters spinning the wheel” and “Her grace the Gaddan" or " the grace of the Shepherdess”.

Sculpture by Sobha Singh

Sobha Singh also tried a hand at sculpture and made some of the statues including the busts of M.S. Randhawa, Prithvi Raj Kapoor, Nirmal Chandra and an incomplete one of Amrita Pritam.

Aesthetic Paintings of Sobha Singh

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Mumtaz Mahal Ommar Khayam Bhagat Singh
Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal | Source
 Ommar Khayam
Ommar Khayam | Source
Bhagat Singh
Bhagat Singh | Source

Aesthetic paintings

In the thirties of the 20th century, the Persian poetry of Omar Khayyam on wine and music was the favorite among the English-educated middle-class Punjabi.

Depicting this favorite theme, Sobha Singh painted Khayyam playing mandolin while reclining against a bolster with a beautiful young woman offering him a cup of wine.

Other secular themes of the Palace of Bhutan, Landscapes, a Gaddan or Shepherdess, a snake charmer etc are marvelous in detail and delineation.

Some interesting facts about Shobha Singh

He created more than 2000 paintings
The British Govt. in India banned his painting titled Gadar.
A postal stamp released on his painting of Mahatma Gandhi.
His paintings auctioned in London for 17000 pounds.
His painting of Guru Nanak adorns the Parliament.
He painted the logo of Indian Railways
The Snake Charmer
The Snake Charmer | Source


Both Norah Richard and Sobha Singh have died and the mute flowers in their gardens are also desolate, lonesome and sad. The masters and their masterpieces will dissolve into eternity and the caravan moves on as usual. The colors and canvas are there and the brush pines for the hands of the master but the painter artist is no more. It is believed that the painters become flowers or stars after death.

Norah’s dream to develop Andretta as an abode of artists has been only partially fulfilled as some artists made it their permanent or temporary home. But then who knows that the dream may still come true.

© 2014 Sanjay Sharma


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile imageAUTHOR

      Sanjay Sharma 

      10 months ago from Mandi (HP) India

      Thanks, Prantika Samanta for the visit and the comment. It is a beautiful experience to visit the place.

    • Prantika Samanta profile image

      Prantika Samanta 

      10 months ago from Kolkata, India

      An interesting read. An informative article that is well presented. Thank you for sharing such a wonderful article.

    • SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile imageAUTHOR

      Sanjay Sharma 

      10 months ago from Mandi (HP) India

      Thanks Anjoo Fellner for the visit and the comment. I completely agree with you and I myself have visited the place a number of times.

    • profile image

      Anjoo Fellner 

      10 months ago

      I was fortunate to have visited Sardar Sobha Singh’s home with my parents and feel blessed to have met him. His paintings were exceptional, especially that of Nora Richard. The paintings of the Sikh Gurus were sublime! And Andretta was the perfect place...

    • SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile imageAUTHOR

      Sanjay Sharma 

      5 years ago from Mandi (HP) India

      Thanks shprd74 for the visit. I an a great fan of sobha Singh and few of his paintings adorn my house.

    • shprd74 profile image

      Hari Prasad S 

      5 years ago from Bangalore

      Sir you have researched it well. Thanks.

      Very informative.

      - hari

    • SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile imageAUTHOR

      Sanjay Sharma 

      5 years ago from Mandi (HP) India

      Thanks DDE for the visit and the comment. I am glad you liked the post.

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 

      5 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      Beautiful photos! A fascinating read about different cultures. You certainly enlightened me.

    • SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile imageAUTHOR

      Sanjay Sharma 

      5 years ago from Mandi (HP) India

      Thanks peachpurple for the visit and the comment.

    • peachpurple profile image


      5 years ago from Home Sweet Home

      Wow beautiful pictures and stories behind these people, thanks for sharing us india beauty

    • SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile imageAUTHOR

      Sanjay Sharma 

      5 years ago from Mandi (HP) India

      Thanks srsddn for the visit and the compliment. I was expecting your comment. I always wanted to pay my tributes to Sobha Singh, as some of his paintings adorn my house. I have always liked watching his paintings ever since my childhood. Thanks again.

    • srsddn profile image


      5 years ago from Dehra Dun, India

      Sanjay, I take this opportunity to congratulate you on publishing this Hub. It is so elaborate that it can be called a mini book. We have always loved Sobha Singh's paintings and many people have displayed one or the other painting in their houses. Your description about the artists at Andretta is so complete that going through it is like visiting this famous place. Your pictures and the videos are quite thrilling. Very many thanks for sharing such a treasure about Sobha Singh and other artists. Voted up, beautiful, interesting and useful.

    • SANJAY LAKHANPAL profile imageAUTHOR

      Sanjay Sharma 

      5 years ago from Mandi (HP) India

      Thanks ChitrangadaSharan for the visit and the comment, Indeed Sobha Singh was a painter with divine touch in his brush.

    • ChitrangadaSharan profile image

      Chitrangada Sharan 

      5 years ago from New Delhi, India

      Excellent hub and very well presented!

      I have always felt fascinated by the paintings of Shobha Singh. They appear divine with such delicate mixing of colors.

      But the other artists you have mentioned are also awesome. So thoughtful of you to introduce them to the readers through your writing.

      Thanks for sharing and voted up! Sharing this on HP!


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)