ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Three Levels of Design Captured of an Interior of the Minneapolis Public Library in Downtown Minneapolis

Updated on July 6, 2020

Three Levels of Design captured of an interior of the Minneapolis Public Library in downtown Minneapolis


This paper was written typically to tackle diverse levels of the design present within the photographed image, specifically the image of an interior of the Minneapolis Public Library within downtown Minneapolis, designed by Cesar Pelli. Each of Donald Norman's levels of design namely visceral, behavioral, reflective were applied to this image after undertaking detailed observation (2004). This assessment established that every level of design was essential in creating an inclusive meaning of the image, with visceral design deemed to be the most noticeable because of the striking visual nature of the image. The image was established to be efficacious regarding its utilization of the design as both a communicator of space as well as an appearance of artistic components.


Three Levels of Design Captured in the interior of Minneapolis Public Library

An image leaves its underlying viewer with erratic reactions that is some with instant and unexplainable, while others are left with multifaceted and conventional reactions due to the image's design. The image is developed utilizing Donald Norman's fundamental three levels of design namely visceral, behavioral, as well as reflective. Visceral is deemed to be the emotional reaction while the behavioral serves the purpose of producing a functional aspect. Reflective entails cultural implications about the design. Thus, these vital levels can be traced within the Bradley Johnson's image of the interior of Minneapolis Public Library within Minnesota. The preview that Tim Kiser typically provides the viewer with the material regarding responding to the emotional, functional, as well as societal levels.


Tim typically captures the interior of Minneapolis public library during the day as depicted in Figure 1. Within the foreground of the underlying image, the escalator in the library is depicted. Within the space that seems next to the viewer textured span of the aisle, which seems to be glowing due to the lights emanating from the roof of the library. On the left side, a studying area with tables stands within the location in this area. There is a typical concrete sidewalk, which seems non-reflective against the bright lights of the library. A man is walking past the escalator on the right side of the aisle. He is wearing dark pants, a white t-shirt, and carrying aside bag on the left side.

Within the middle ground, the image typically spans the front of the library. It is brown. There are four staircases on the left side part of the library building. The façade acts as a frame for the underlying image's focus, the interior of the library. The whole visible span depicts a light display, from left to corresponding right as well as from top to bottom. This presentation is composed of rectangular shapes made of sets of iterating parallel lines that differ within their respective spacing. Whereas the shapes, as well as colors, are deemed not symmetrical, their respective components are balanced in terms of the identical colors, quantities of lines, as well as spacing within the same areas on every side, which is typically giving the light display asymmetric impacts.

Visceral Design

Visceral design entails involuntary reaction that happens before perceiving the design. Moreover, the visceral level of the design possesses biological backgrounds. Numerous natural objects are deemed to be appeasing to view since they have changed for effectiveness (Norman, 2004). This image of the interior of Minneapolis public library, even though not entirely composed of bright colors as well as not impeccably symmetrical depicts the fundamental innate pleasure regarding the response to such visual cues.

The instantaneous reaction when viewing this image is chiefly in response to the light demonstration. It is adequately bright, highly and feels warm. The darkness aids in highlighting the prevailing bright light display as the underlying viewer's chief focus. Just as the locations of the darkness highpoint the image's color, the non-existence of perfect symmetry depicts irresistible sense about the balance that is present. Moreover, the light display has corresponding components of line and color on either side of its underlying center. This bright, stable display instantaneously makes the viewer involved just as a bee is instantly attracted to a bright, balanced flower. Supplementary components that massively contribute to an efficacious visceral design are deemed to be the simple, graphic forms that aids in the creation of the light display, contrast amidst the light and dark, as well as the corresponding satisfying sense accomplished via inviting focal point at the underlying center of the image. Moreover, these components of brightness coupled with simplicity within Cesar's design and captured by Tim grants visual cues to the corresponding viewer that leads to instant, emotional responses, typical of the visceral design.

Behavioral Design

Behavioral design is defined as an act of relying on the utilization as well as performance that is elucidated utilizing four chief elements (Norman, 2004). Moreover, this image solely utilized three of the four components, which are employed in depicting the function of the design and the image. Tim's image serves the purpose of displaying the interior of the Minneapolis public library to the corresponding viewer, who might be either reader of the interior design or merely be fascinated in viewing the fundamental work of this very designer. Regarding the viewer, this specific image is deemed significant since it aids in initiating stage for learning concerning the library's design. Moreover, this image is necessary for comprehending the library's setting as well as aesthetics. The image also performs diverse purposes for supplementary stakeholders. In terms of interior design, it makes an operative headline.

Another element of behavioral design unmistakable within this image is understandability. Norman elaborates dual conceptual models that ought to match every supplementary about the plausible design. In this case, Tim aids in making sure that these dual models match through catching the most comprehensible outlook of the Minneapolis public library, which is interpreting the designer's model into the underlying user's model. The layout coupled with the placement of diverse components typically makes distinct the designer's intention as well as the role of the corresponding within this design as a client of Cesar Pelli, thus, an understandable image. For Tim, it typically establishes the tone for this underlying series of the photos and corresponding assists them to undertake comparison. Moreover, the image's publication gives attention to Cesar Pelli's work regarding advertising peculiar experience they provide to their respective potential clients, who might be viewing the image as a chief source of information concerning the library.

Moreover, this is deemed to be identical to the third applicable element about the behavioral design, as well as usability. Usability is deemed to be the way products perform unsupported through advertising (Norman, 2004). This typically refers to the extent that Tim's image successfully performs devoid of publication, which acts as both as a writer of space as well as a visually agreeable piece of the art. Regarding both circumstances, it is deemed usable since it can be swiftly comprehended with diminutive analysis, thus developing an operative, as well as usable design.

Reflective Design

This image of the interior of Minneapolis public library serves as a prominence symbol in terms of the aesthetics of the image that grants it a superior, and refined expression. Tim's inclusion of the exterior of the library donates an urban, cosmopolitan impression. The design of the Minneapolis public library itself is deemed to be pristine, deficient of the cluttered product. The peculiar qualities that establish this image section from the corresponding images of the supplementary Minneapolis public library typically make it exclusive. Displaying the image of the interior of the library is considered to be merit regarding the interest in exclusive and upscale sites.

Association amidst Visceral, Behavioral, and Reflective Design

Regarding this image, every one of the three levels of the design massively contributes significant information since they operate separately thus aiding in undertaking visual communication to the viewer. Visceral level is deemed to be the most significant since apart from serving the cultural value to the user, the image is chiefly meant for the fresh, and emotional satisfaction. Moreover, it aids in communicating easily visual pleasure via balance, focal point, as well as color. The behavioral, as well as reflective elements, operates within this very prominent visceral aspect through making the image effortlessly comprehended and certainly remarkable.


Tim Kiser utilizes Norman's three levels of design in developing a remarkable and significant image. He typically establishes the visceral level at the center stage by showcasing the interior of the Minneapolis public library. The balance of the colors of the image permits instant and emotional attachment. Moreover, Tim ensures that the function of the image is unblemished since it communicates space as well as visual pleasure. These three levels operate together in successfully developing a comprehensive, designed experience for the underlying viewers.

Figure 1: Interior of Minneapolis Public Library by Tim Kiser


American Library Association. (2019). Conference Theme. College & Research Libraries News, 42(7), 220-224.

Leorke, D., & Wyatt, D. (2019). Introduction: More Than Just a Library. In Public Libraries in the Smart City (pp. 1-12). Palgrave Pivot, Singapore.

Norman, D.A. (2004). Three Levels of Design: Visceral, Behavioral, and Reflective. In Emotional Design (pp.63-95). New York, NY: Basic Books.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2020 Michael Omolo


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)