- Arts and Design
Tornado, Raw Nature
Tornadoes are beautiful, powerful, destructive, and can seem to come out of nowhere. they can attract people like moth to a flame.
Here you will find some of the finest tornado photos, posters, and art prints along with the tornado videos.
Tornado Rating System
The Fujita System, or F Scale
How are tornatoes rated? Retired Air Force Brig. Gen., David L. Johnson, director of the NOAA National Weater Serviece says that "The EF Scale takes into account additional variables which will provide a more accurate indication of tornado strength," and that "The EF Scale will provide more detailed guidelines that will allow the National Weather Service to more accurately rate tornadoes that strike in the United States."
The F Scale was first developed by T. Theodore Fujita in 1971 as a way to rate tornadoes and to estimate wind speeds based on the damage left in their wake. The EF Scale improves on the F Scale by incorporating more damage indicators and degrees of damage then by the original F Scale.
According to the F Scale, also known as the Fujita Scale:
An F0 tornado is called a Gale tornado and has wind speeds of 40-72 MPH. Some damage to chimneys; breaks branches off trees; pushes over shallow rooted trees; damages sign boards.
F1 is called a moderate tornado with wind speeds from 73-112 MPH. The lower limit is the beginning of hurricane wind speed; peels surface off roofs; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned; moving autos pushed off the roads; attached garages may be destroyed.
F2, known as a significant tornado has winds of 113-157 MPH. Considerable damage. Roofs torn off frame houses; mobile homes demolished; boxcars pushed over; large trees snapped or uprooted; light object missiles generated.
F3, is called a severe tornado and has winds from 158-206 MPH. Roof and some walls torn off well constructed houses; trains overturned; most trees in forest uprooted.
F4, or Devastating tornado has winds from 207-260 MPH. Well-constructed houses leveled; structures with weak foundations blown off some distance; cars thrown and large missiles generated.
F5, or incredible tornado has winds from 261-318 MPH. Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable distances to disintegrate; automobile sized missiles fly through the air in excess of 100 meters; trees debarked; steel re-inforced concrete structures badly damaged.
F6, known as inconceivable tornado has winds of 319-379 MPH. These winds are very unlikely. The small area of damage they might produce would probably not be recognizable along with the mess produced by F4 and F5 wind that would surround the F6 winds. Missiles, such as cars and refrigerators would do serious secondary damage that could not be directly identified as F6 damage. If this level is ever achieved, evidence for it might only be found in some manner of ground swirl pattern, for it may never be identifiable through engineering studies.