Types of Weaves in Woven Fabrics
Woven fabrics are the fabrics which are made by interlacing of yarns. The yarns can be interlaced in many different ways and the fabrics can be constructed on multiple different machines, giving rise to a variety of woven fabrics. In this article, we will discuss the basic types of weaves in woven fabrics.
There are three basic weave types in woven fabrics. Variations are made these basic weaves to create more varieties of fabrics.
The three basic weaves in woven fabrics are as follows:
When the warp and the weft yarns are interlaced in the pattern of one over and one under, it is called as the plain weave. The most common type of weave is the plain weave. It is also the simplest of the three basic weaves.
In the loom, the warp yarns are firmly placed vertically and the weft yarn moves over one warp yarn and then below the corresponding warp yarn. This pattern is followed through the yarns, to create the fabric.
Fabrics with plain weave, can be made using different varieties of fibres and yarns of different count, to create multiple types of fabrics. The weaves can be both balanced (warp and weft yarns equally spaced or are similar in size) and unbalanced (warp and weft yarns are not equally spaced or are not similar in size).
The plain weave also has variations. Following are the most common plain weave variations:
Ribbed fabrics are the fabrics in which many small yarns are interlaced over a lesser number of large yarns. It is a type of unbalanced weave. Generally, the number of warp yarns are more, thus giving a rib effect across the width of the fabric. Examples of ribbed fabrics are bedford cord, broadcloth, ottoman etc.
A type of variation of the basic plain weave, a basket weave is made by the use of two or more warp (used as one yarn) and/or two or more weft yarns (used as one yarn). Examples of basket weave fabrics are sack fabrics, duck, canvas etc.
A type of basic weave, a twill weave is a patterned weave. One can easily identify a twill weave by its distinct diagonal ribs across the fabric. The simplest twill weave involves the weft yarn placed over two warp yarns, then under one warp yarn, then over two, and so on and so forth. The resultant diagonal on the fabric can either run from upper left corner to the bottom right corner or from upper right corner to the bottom left corner. When a fabric runs from lower left corner to the upper right corner, it is called right-hand twill. If it is the other way round, it is called left hand twill.
The way to represent a twill weave is a/b, where a and b are whole numbers; a represents number of weft yarns crossing over the warp yarns, and b represents to the number of weft yarns the warp yarn passes under.
Even Sided Twill
When the twill has same number of warp and weft yarns, it is called an even sided twill. Example, 2/2 twill. Even sided twill are reversible in nature. Fabrics like serge, flannel, plaids are examples of even sided twill fabrics.
Warp Faced Twill
When the warp yarns are dominant on the face of the fabric, the fabric is called warp faced twill fabric. Examples of warp faced twill fabrics are denim, drill, gabardine, etc.
Filling Faced Twill
When the weft yarns are dominant on the face of the fabric, the fabric is called filling faced twill fabric.
When the direction of the twill reverses itself to create V in the fabric, the fabric is called herringbone twill fabric.
The satin weave is made when four or more weft yarns pass over the warp yarn or when four or more warp yarns run over the weft. When the warp yarns float on the face of the fabric, the fabric is called a warp faced satin. When the weft yarns float on the face, the fabric is called a filling faced satin.
When filament yarns are used to create a satin weave, it is called satin, and when spun yarns are used to make a satin weave, the fabric is called sateen. Satin is often used as lining fabrics and the fabric has a lustrous surface and a shine.
That concludes the article on basic weave types. Leave a comment below to let me know what I should write on, next!
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