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How Are Acrylic Paints Made?
Acrylic Paint, a Fairly New Medium
Acrylic paint has become very popular in the last 60 years, for the delight and enjoyment of crafters and artists all around the world.
It's available in all kind of shades and tints, and in a vast array of qualities, from the lower quality good for crafting purposes to the more expensive quality that gives best results when mixing and manipulating with acrylic mediums.
But what is it and how was it developed?
The History of Acrylics
In the 1920s an American firm, Rohm and Haas, started experimenting mixing synthetic resins.
The first synthetic resin products were used in false teeth and hills of shoes. Then the early polymers, or acrylics, were developed into a base for house paint.
Initially, the resin emulsions could not absorb much pigment, so they were found only in pastel colors. Increasing the pigment saturation would turn the paint solid.
After WWII, scientists and artists, especially those that painted outdoor murals, worked together to find paints that could stand up to the weather.
The first company to make a paint a paint with a good color saturation, in 1955, was the American Pigments, from Cincinnati, Ohio. Their product was called Liquid Texture, or Liquitex, a revolutionary paint welcome by designers that quickly spread to the fine arts.
By the 1950s this new latex paint was available in the United States and was particularly embraced by younger artists, especially in the Pop Art movement.
By the 1960s acrylics spread also overseas.
Acrylic Paint, a Very Versatile Medium
Acrylic paint is a very versatile painting medium that can be used on a large assortment of materials and supports.
You can paint with acrylics on canvas, wood, clay, ceramic, and any porous material that offers a little tooth for the paint to grab on.
You just have to be careful if the material is too sleek, like ceramic tiles, acrylic paint might peel off. It may need priming.
How Are Acrylics Made?
Acrylic paint is made by mixing acrylic adhesive and pigments.
In order to obtain large quantities of paint with consistent color and characteristics, paint factories must weigh and test carefully all ingredients.
The mixture of binder and pigments includes a preservative to prevent deterioration; an antifreeze to protect tubes from cold weather; a thickening medium to make the consistency more similar to oil paint; and a wetting agent to stabilize the paint and disperse the pigments evenly in the binder.
All these additives make sure that acrylic paint will never rot, discolor, or crack.
Pigments and Binders in Acrylic Paint
Acrylic paint manufacturer use exactly the same pigments than makers of other painting mediums. Pigments are the minerals or chemicals that give the color to the paint.
The difference of the different paints is in the binder, the substance that holds the pigment particles together.
For example: in watercolor paint the binder is gum arabic, and the paint solvent is water; in oil paint the binder is linseed oil, and the solvent are turpentine or a petroleum derivative.
For acrylic paint the binder is a man-made liquid plastic, or polymer, and the solvent is water which makes acrylic paint very easy to clean up when still wet. The acrylic binder is milky-white when wet, but dries completely clear, giving to acrylic paint the characteristic of drying a little darker.
Acrylics Vs. Oil Paint
Even if some professional artists that have been formed academically and according to a classic teachings strongly prefer oil paint and consider acrylics a lower quality medium, acrylic paint has several advantages that make it the medium of choice for beginner painters and established artists that want to experiment with its versatility.
One reason for people to prefer acrylics to oil paint is that acrylics, being water-based and odor-free, are a very convenient option for artists allergic to oil solvents, such as turpentine and mineral spirits, or that dislike their smell.
Also, acrylics dry very fast, allowing the painting process to advance quickly by rapidly adding consecutive layers of paint on dry under-painting.
Among the advantages of acrylic paint is the fact that its waterproof film is permanent, and will retain its color indefinitely. It will not yellow with age, as oil paint does, effect of the linseed-oil binder.
The fast drying quality makes it also very easy to transport a picture from a painting location to another, or to store it shortly after the end of the painting session.
In acrylic, happiness comes a bit faster.— Robert Genn
You can paint with acrylics on any non-oily surface. That makes canvases primed for oil paint unsuitable for acrylics.
If the support is pliable it can be bent or rolled without the paint to crack.
Time is not the enemy with acrylics. Think of the fast-drying characteristics of the medium as an invitation to paint and repaint, until you see something you like.— Brad Faegre
© 2012 Robie Benve