Medieval Crafts You Can Make Yourself
How to Relive the Middle Ages through Medieval Crafts
I first started to become interested in the Middle Ages when I was in third grade, and studying world history, although I could not have said why. Then, when I was finishing my music degree, we had several sections of history classes that had to be completed, and from the first, I was hooked on the Middle Ages! Although I enjoy crafts, I have never been the "crafty" kind of person, but when I was researching the Middle Ages and it turned out to be so much fun, I thought I would try my hand at a number of medieval crafts to see if I could be successful at some of the crafts. After all, I had modern equipment, and a lot of books and other resources, so surely it would be easier than a medieval person trying to do the same thing!
I chose a number of medieval crafts to try and here are the results of the ones where I finally could produce a reasonable product. With some time, effort and perseverance, you too can learn how people in medieval times lived, and feel a connection to them, or perhaps just knowing the place these crafts had in history will help you appreciate medieval crafts more!
Crafts Used in Making Medieval Books
Books were a staple of the Middle Ages, and a large number of crafts were involved in their manufacture. From making the paper for the book, to sewing the signatures of the book, to marbling the endpapers, to binding the book, and the calligraphy and illumination involved in the actual words on the page, books are perhaps the ultimate amalgamation of crafts in the Middle Ages, and probably the reason why books are still so loved today. By making a book yourself from start to finish, you can experience the pleasure of learning to master each of the crafts involved in making books, and show off your finished product with pride!
More about papermaking at Amazon
Originally I apprenticed under a papermaker, and was intrigued. Then I found this book that started me on making paper more seriously--has beautiful projects and easy-to-follow instructions with a lot of detailed information, but at the same time, is accessible to someone with no papermaking experience.
An example of a high-quality mould and deckle set, although you can make your own easily from scrap wood, hardware cloth, aluminum mesh, and nails or screws.
One of the most Valuable Crafts of the Medieval Era
Paper in the Middle Ages was usually made from bark, and because of its fragility, was primarily originally intended only for temporary use. Although thousands of manuscripts existed before the secret of papermaking was discovered (some scholars think Marco Polo did not bring the technique back from China, but argue for the independent discovery of papermaking), the manuscripts were inked onto prepared animal hides, and preparing animal hides to turn into material suitable for manuscripts was a long, tedious process in scraping the hair off the hide, smoothing the hide, then immersing it in chemicals, stretching it, drying it, and so on, before a hide would be ready to use. When Marco Polo returned from Asia with the secret of papermaking that produced a sturdy product, being made from rags, Europe went wild for paper. Paper was extremely valuable and although at the time it required heavy machinery driven by water to pound linen and cotton rags into pulp, today making paper at home is an easy medieval craft and can be done as a lucrative hobby (handmade paper sheets often are sold for $4 each, and it takes about an afternoon to make 50 sheets).
Papermaking is easy--there's a little skill development in "couching" the paper that is perhaps best learned by apprenticing under a skilled papermaker--but papermaking has all the pleasure of playing in mud, with none of the mess. And the best thing is, you can make this medieval craft out of recycled paper--junk mail, old records--or any plant material such as fallen leaves, onion skins, yard waste, whatever you find on your walks. You can even make the mould and deckle, drying racks, and the paper press at home from old stuff lying around. Whether you use it for stationery, as wallpaper, to cover boxes, or make gift bags, cards, or tags, you'll find that handmade paper is a highly affordable luxury!
When I first went to live in France, I visited the famous paper mill at Fontaines-de-Vaucluse, where I saw for myself the medieval-era paper mill (Fontaines-de-Vaucluse is also notable for being the residence of the famous poet Petrarch, and nearby is Les Baux, where Petrarch's friend Dante received the inspiration for his famous poem Inferno). The paper mill is an enormous structure, with wooden hammers weighing tons pounding down onto wet cotton and linen rags. The paper sold there at the Fontaines-de-Vaucluse mill is often made mixed with flower petals, in honour of their famous resident Petrarch. (If you go, be sure to stop by the Petrarch museum and the castle where he stayed!)
Closely allied to the crafts of papermaking and bookbinding was marbling paper, seen nowadays on fine endpapers in expensive books. The medieval craft of marbling paper consists of floating paints, often oil paints, on top of water, often mixed with gall to make the oils a little more pliable, and making patterns through the paints with a comb, then transferring the pattern on to a sheet of paper by gently placing the paper on top of the water so that the paint sticks to it, then lifting the paper up and drying it. Depending on the comb technique, you can make peacock or fan patterns, or simpler wavy patterns, or even more elaborate patterns. You can use either a regular hair comb, an "Afro" comb, or you can make a comb by driving finishing nails into a stick. In any case, by dragging the comb through the paints floating on the water, you will create interesting patterns. When you get a pattern you like, you are done! The secret to good marbling is not to mix the paints too much, but to be satisfied with a little development--otherwise you will end up with a muddy-looking mess and have to throw out the tray of paints.
Although marbling paper takes a bit of practice to learn, once the skill is acquired, marbling paper can be fairly fast and easy to do. The real skill in marbling paper is in turning out nearly-identical patterned sheets of paper over and over again (the patterns will not be exactly identical, since each tray of paint will vary slightly in the way it is combed and the pattern as it lays on the water).
Once you learn how to marble paper, the skill can easily be transferred to fabric, or any other surface that will accept paint (glass, leather, etc.). I've even seen marbled sneakers and hair accessories!
Paper Marbling Supplies and Reference
Not a book for beginners, but if you have already tried marbling, this provides an excellent overview of marbling patterns.
This book provides techniques for Turkish, Japanese, comb, wave and zigzag patterns.
This kit includes: six ½-oz. bottles of marbling colors (red, green, yellow, black, blue, white). Each bottle has been topped with a dropper, so that you can drop the color directly onto the size; 5 oz. alum mordant, which you spray onto your paper to prepare it for marbling; 2 oz. Methocel to make your size; and instructions on how to prepare your cloth or paper, and size. You are also instructed on how to make some of the most common marbling patterns such as `stone,' `get-gel,' or `rake Nonpareil.' There are also instructions for how to pick up your pattern on your paper or fabric, rinse it, and then clean up afterwards.
From the construction and use of the tools needed for marbling paper, to the hands-on techniques used for creating specific projects, this DVD will lead you step-by-step through a number of projects. Includes recommendations for specific brands of materials needed in marbling.
Don't be fooled by the picture here-- in addition to the 96-page book, this set includes 8 marbled paper swatches; 3 tubes of marbling color; packets of sizing and thinning solution, and a comb. Concentrates mainly on Renaissance-style Italian marbling.
This book provides a complete guide to setting up your marbling space, with an eye to your budget; a list of suppliers of materials for marbling; a how-to section with detailed instructions for dozens of techniques, including objects with multiple surfaces; and a troubleshooting guide. A highly recommended book for the home marbler.
This set has a number of items included: an 18" x 20" all-wood marbling tank with an overflow reservoir and drain plug, painted white; a 2-inch mahogany marbling comb; a 1-inch mahogany marbling rake; a 1-inch mahogany (nonpareil) marbling rake; a skimmer board; two stirring sticks; six broom straw brushes; one pound of marbling size; one pound of alum (replaces the need for ox gall); ten 8" x 10" sheets of masa rice paper; ten 10" x 15" pieces of #8 mm Hobati silk and a basic instruction book, "The Art of Marbling." All in all, a real bargain set for the beginner!
Perhaps the ultimate marbling book for beginners, intermediates, and advanced marblers, this book contains dozens of techniques, a troubleshooting guide, and instructions for advanced techniques such as making your own pigments.
Bookmaking and Bookbinding
Bookmaking is the medieval craft of folding paper into pages and sewing it into signatures, and then sewing the signatures together to form the finished book. Even sizes of paper, up until the nineteenth century, were so named because of how many pages the paper could be folded into--thus the quarto (four pages) and octavo (eight pages) sizes that we still read about today in literature classes. If you have ever bought a book with uncut paper edges, that book has been made with the old art of bookmaking, and the uncut pages are still formed into their signatures.
Bookbinding is the art of adding board covers to the signatures, and covering the boards with material. In high-quality books this medieval craft used leather, ceramic, or metals, gems, stone, and even gold and silver. Often the papers between the boards and the signatures are marbled (see the section above for what marbling is, along with some recommended resources).
Both these skills are easily learned, but they involve sharp knives, and bookmaking involves needles, so do not let children attempt these medieval crafts unsupervised until they have acquired a great deal of skill. The skills are worth learning, because there is nothing like the feeling of looking at a beautifully-bound book that you have done yourself. For renaissance faire enthusiasts, having your own hand-bound book is an accessory to show off to everyone!
More About Bookbinding
This Dover publication covers making tools you will need for bookbinding, along with a number of techniques for binding books. Eminently practical, with instructions for slipcovers, music binding, and more.
A great beginner's book for bookbinding, and combined with other books, can be a real resource for getting your feet wet in the craft of bookbinding. Includes detailed steps for thirteen different book structures.
A summary of her two previous books on the subject, "Creating Handmade Books," and "Unique Handmade Books," this book gives you detailed instructions for creating many different book structures and bindings.
A perfect complement to Aldren Watson's book, this book covers a few techniques not found in Watson's book, including rebinding perfect-bound books.
If you want clear, concise descriptions of the nitty-gritty basics of bookbinding, you need to look no further. From the kind of knots to use, to the details of covers, this book is the ultimate reference. Not flashy, but indispensable for the basics.
One of the few essential bookbinding tools you will have difficulty making yourself, these 2" bookbinder's needles are essential to sewing signatures.
This bookbinder's linen thread is good quality and fifty yards of thread will make several books.
Full of practical techniques, this book will take you through the fundamentals of book construction as an art form.
The Middle Ages happened in Japan, too, and this practical book on Japanese bookbinding covers nineteen different styles of Japanese books, suitable for those with little knowledge of bookbinding or Japanese arts.
A book on bookmaking that is both beautiful and practical, with techniques for both beginners and more advanced practitioners of bookbinding.
No-one really knows when lacemaking began, because laces are so fragile that they tend not to survive the centuries. However, lacemaking was practiced by women in the Middle Ages throughout Europe, and we know this because of extensive financial records and household inventories. Lacemaking was a highly-prized medieval craft and a good lacemaker could easily support a large family in comfort. Lacemaking was a slow process, and could be done only in the daytime, because lacemaking needs a lot of light, so that a highly talented lacemaker might turn out a half-metre of lace per month. But because it was so labour-intensive, the lace itself was a luxury item and very expensive. Both needle and bobbin laces were available in the Middle Ages, so whichever type of lacemaking you prefer will still be a medieval craft.
Lacemakers were commonly trained in the lacemakng tradition of the region in which they lived, and many of the laces sold today still bear the names of those regions.
More about Lacemaking
An excellent guide for the beginner to begin making bobbin lace. If you love Chantilly lace or Torchon lace, this guide will help you develop the skills to make bobbin laces such as Chantilly and Torchon.
The technique for making those gorgeous Belgian laces.
For Buck's Point laces
A useful overall introduction to needle laces, but you'll need another book to get you started with actually doing the needle laces yourself.
Two renaissance techniques for lacemaking.
An excellent beginner's book to bobbin laces.
If you wish to learn lacemaking, this invaluable book will help you to identify the types of laces and learn something about the history of each lace. Then you can pinpoint the exact lace you wish to make and you will be able to find instructions for making that lace.
Another useful book for identifying laces by history and technique.
Valuable for the period paintings of people wearing lace. With a lace identification book, you can figure out which lace someone is wearing in the picture, and then go learn to make it.
Medieval Printed Fabric
Printing was not just for books, although that was a major industry in the Middle Ages. However, the real money was in the medieval craft of printing cotton. Printed cotton was originally developed in India, and many printed cottons, such as calico, bear the name of the region of India in which they were developed. Printed cotton, called in French "indienne," was so wildly popular that in many countries, such as France, this medieval craft was made illegal. However, the tiny prinicipality of Avignon, surrounded by France, was the private property of the Pope, and printed cottons were worn there, to the shock and dismay of French and English inhabitants. In fact, in Avignon, you can still walk down the Rue de Teinturiers, or Dyer Street, and see the buildings where dyers plied their crafts; some of the original water wheels that drove the printing machinery are still visible above the canal constructed along the street to drive them! Even today, in the south of France, many of the traditional printed fabric designs from medieval times are still being printed and sold in street markets--and then there is the famous Souleiado factory in Tarascon, which houses a number of different fabrics and historical printing blocks showing this medieval craft at its finest.
More on Fabric Printing
Useful for learning to build complex patterns from simple shapes, thereby enabling you to get your printing shapes in order for repeating patterns. Classified by period.
An historical guide to printing on fabrics.
An excellent book for learning to make your own print blocks.
225 medieval motifs that you can copy onto stamp media.
200 more medieval designs to give you ideas for printing on fabric.
Over 950 illustrations from medieval sources.
Dyeing is a medieval craft messy but fun, and a great way to sharpen your scientific observation skills. Numerous mineral, animal and vegetable dyes were common in the medieval era; everything from roots, to crushed-up insects, to lapis lazuli was used to produce dyes for fabrics. If you want to try dyeing fabric, I suggest you begin by dyeing natural fabrics with tea to get used to the process. However, many plants make beautiful and inexpensive dyes for cotton, linen and wool. These same dyes can often be used to dye your hair and as dyes for Easter Eggs!
Dyeing takes a colorant, a mordant (to help the dye "bite" onto the fabric), water, and a natural fabric like cotton, linen, or wool. And, of course, a container that you don't mind getting stained! Also it's generally not a great idea to dye anything just before you have a meeting or a party, as it will stain your hands and probably your clothing.
More About Dyeing
Some of you may remember the Friends episode where Chandler was complaining about his name. In fact, Joey was not far wrong in saying that Chandler's name was like chandelier--chandelier is a holder for candles, and chandler is the medieval term for someone who makes candles!
Candles in the Middle Ages were typically made from either tallow or beeswax. Because I had much easier access to beeswax, I chose to learn how to make beeswax candles. There are three ways to make beeswax candles--either by rolling sheets of honeycomb, in a mold, or by dipping. Molds are much faster than dipping, but I find it more difficult to get the wicks prepared properly. Dipped candles take more time, but there's a great amount of satisfaction in getting a beautiful-looking dipped beeswax candle--and all you need for heating is a crock pot or hot plate and a tall pyrex container.
In addition, tallow candles sputter, whereas beeswax not only burns cleanly, but gives off a beautiful honey smell that perfumes the whole house. I've completely quit buying candles, because the beeswax is just so satisfying. This medieval craft can be a real moneymaker if you have cheap sources of beeswax.
I use these--the chunks are easy to work with and make the whole house smell like honey!
Just enough information to get you started on hand-dipping candles.
Natural-colored beeswax for chandling. I use this one, too!
Obviously, candles must have wicks!
Excellent mold for votive candles. I put mine in the freezer to start with, so that the candles will pop out more easily later on.
Great tips in this book for working with beeswax, which can be somewhat tricky.
An invaluable book, especially if you have trouble on a chandling project.
If you do better with a DVD than a book, here it is!
A fabulous set of tools for working with clay--I own these!
Twenty-five pounds may be a little much if you are an individual planning to make a few beads, but this is the perfect size for a group project, or if you are planning to make many beads.
Another essential pottery tool kit for working with clay to make clay beads.
All about the history of beads!
Essential tool for shaping clay beads.
An excellent DVD about lampwork beadmaking for those who don't learn well from books.
If you really wish to try glass beadwork at home, the best way is to start with lampwork beads. This is an excellent introduction to lampwork beadmaking.
I do not recommend glass beadmaking as a home or casual project--glass is best learned under an apprenticeship. However, it's fun to read about it!
Although the typical medieval craft bead is often made of metal or glass, glassblowing requires a lot of equipment and skill, as does metalworking. However, there are four easy media for making beads. The first is clay, which is cheap, can be fired in a regular kitchen oven, and glazed or painted and then taken to a kiln for final firing--or you can build a clay firing oven yourself in your yard.
The second medium, while not used in the Middle Ages, but that requires a medieval skill, is paper. Paper can be fashioned into a lovely bead, either from pressing pulp together and molding it (called papier-maché) or from taking damp sheets of paper and folding or rolling them into a bead and letting them dry.
The third medium that is excellent for trying medieval beadmaking is rose petals. These petals, which would otherwise go to waste once the flowers die, can be turned into lovely jewelry and preserved for decades. I've made both clay and rose petal beads, and I much prefer working with rose beads, although it takes much longer. However, you will have the extra benefit of the house smelling like roses for a week or more after making them! Rose beads were the original beads used in Roman Catholic rosaries and date from the early Middle Ages. This medieval craft is also a great way to preserve your wedding bouquet!
The final easy medium for trying medieval beadmaking is wood. A simple lathe can help you make gorgeous wooden beads, and with a wood carving kit and a wood burning kit (or a handy soldering iron) you can make exquisite and useful beads from wood (even using fallen branches you pick up off the ground).
If you are going to try medieval glass beadmaking, I recommend lampwork. Blowing glass is an extremely dangerous trade and best learned under an apprenticeship with a skilled glassblower. Lampwork requires much lower heat and is much less dangerous than blown glass.
The Next Skill on My List--Orthodox Prayer Rope
I am a member of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia, and these prayer ropes are a part of our tradition. Many of the faithful make them themselves, but in my case, I am afraid I will end up on the floor, tied up in twenty yards of cord, and so as much as I would like to learn this medieval craft, it will take some hands-on teaching for me to be able to do it. However, you may be interested in learning this medieval craft! Again, the initial use of prayer ropes was not documented in the historical records, but from tradition, we know that making prayer ropes was common in the Eastern Church in the Middle Ages.
Making an Orthodox Prayer Rope
Orthodox Prayer Ropes
Made in Mount Athos, one of the holiest places in the world to the Orthodox. If you are not Orthodox yourself, please treat this and all prayer ropes with respect.
An example of a Russian Old Believer prayer rope.
An example of a three-hundred-knot prayer rope.
A two-hundred-knot prayer rope.
Orthodox prayer ropes do not have to be black; they can be any colour that appeals to the person using it.
What interests you?
Which craft would you like to try?
The Essential Medieval Tool
A six-inch, hand-carved bone folder.
An eight-inch bone folder
A folder made from horn, in case you would prefer it to bone.
I do not recommend plastic, as it does not work nearly as well as bone or horn. Still, I know that some vegans will want an alternative. Be advised that this doesn't work as well. I bought an alternative bone folder for my vegan friends, who don't want to touch bone, in bamboo.
The Bone Folder
I discovered one tool that is so useful, not only for medieval crafts, but for all crafts, I can't ever imagine living without it again. That tool is the bone folder. (No, you don't use it to fold bones.) For making creases in paper, for handling gold leaf and burnishing, for turning out sharp points in fabric such as collars or corners, no matter what medieval craft (or even modern craft) you're doing, if it involves paper or fabric, there is no better tool. I love mine so much that I even use it to crease edges when I'm done wrapping Christmas or birthday presents for a gorgeous, professional look, and it takes only seconds to do. A good, real bone (not plastic) folder will last you a lifetime and you'll find new uses for it all the time!
The bone folder you choose should have a rounded end and a pointed end, as well as a flat side and a curved side (it will lay flat one way, and rock the other way). As you acquire skill in using your bone folder, you'll be reaching for it almost every day!
Ready to Try Medieval Crafts for Yourself?
Crafts that were common in the medieval era don't necessarily involve expensive equipment or materials; you're likely to have most of what you need lying around any ordinary residence. Whether you are a beginning crafter or an experienced crafter, you are sure to feel a kinship with your ancestors who lived in the Middle Ages by recreating these lovely and interesting crafts for yourself. I hope you will try making at least a few of these crafts and enjoy the experience!