- Arts and Design
Norman Perceval Rockwell: Biography, and Featured Art for Sale
Section I. Norman Perceval Rockwell Biography
- Birth and Early Years
- Work With the Boy Scouts of America & The Saturday Evening Post
- WWI and U.S. Navy Service
- WWII Era and Patriotic Contributions
- Rockwell in Stockbridge, Massachusetts
- Later Works and Legacy
" ... [A]s I grew up and found the world wasn't the perfect place I had thought it to be, I unconsciously decided that if it wasn't an ideal world, it should be, and so painted only the ideal aspects of it."
--Norman P. Rockwell1
Norman Perceval Rockwell Biography
Birth and Early Years
1894 was an eventful year for the United States. Congress created the Bureau of Immigration, and Labor Day was established as a federal employee’s holiday. Coca-Cola was sold for the first time in bottles, and Thomas Edison’s kinetoscope — a device which would pave the way for motion picture technology — was displayed publicly for the first time.2 But perhaps the event that would prove to be the most significant for our nation, took place amid small fanfare on February 4, when Norman Perceval Rockwell was born to parents Jarvis and Nancy Rockwell, in New York City, NY.
The son of a textiles firm employee, Norman demonstrated his artistic aptitude at a young age. At fourteen, he transferred out of high school to attend the New York School of Art (formerly the Chase School of Art). At sixteen, he transferred again, this time to the National Academy of Design. From there, Rockwell was accepted into the Art Students League, where he was taught by the likes of Thomas Fogarty, George Bridgman, and Frank Vincent DuMond.3, 4, 5
From Fogarty, young Norman took instruction in illustration, which would serve to prepare him for his first commercial commissions. Bridgman was responsible for teaching Rockwell the technical skills that he would rely on for the rest of his illustrious career. DuMond, a prolific teacher to thousands of artists throughout his tenure at the ASL, was famed for his instruction on the “Prismatic Palette.”6
As a student, Rockwell was given smaller commissions. He received his first paying job at fifteen, when he was hired to illustrate four Christmas cards. In 1912, a teenaged Norman received his first “Big Break,” when he was commissioned to illustrate for the Carl H. Claudy7 children’s book, Tell Me Why: Stories About Mother Nature.8
Work With the Boy Scouts of America & The Saturday Evening Post
At nineteen, Rockwell was offered the position of Art Editor for Boys’ Life, the Boy Scouts of America’s official magazine. His first cover for the publication — Scout at Ship’s Wheel — was printed in September of 1913. Additionally, Norman worked on calendars for the BSA, as well as miscellaneous illustrations for other juvenile publications. Though he only held the position for three years, Rockwell continued to do work for the annual BSA calendars for the majority of his career, and was eventually honored with the Silver Buffalo Award — the highest “adult” award granted by the Scouts.9
In 1916, Norman married Irene O’Connor, and the family moved to New Rochelle, NY. Here, Rockwell shared a studio with the cartoonist Clyde Forsythe, who was then employed by The Saturday Evening Post. The two formed a friendship, and through this association, Rockwell was able to secure work painting cover art for the Post, with his first cover — Mother’s Day Off — getting published on May 20, 1916.
Norman Rockwell once commented that he thought of The Saturday Evening Post as the “[G]reatest show window in America.”
Though unknown to him at the time, Rockwell’s extensive work for The Saturday Evening Post would secure him as one of the (if not the) most beloved illustrators in our nation’s history. Over the next forty-seven years, the Post would feature his original cover art three hundred and twenty-two times, eight of which during the first twelve months alone. Notable works for the Post include the World War II era Wille Gillis and Four Freedoms series, the heartwarming Homecoming, and the iconic Rosie the Riveter.
Owing to his success at the Post, Rockwell was sought out by other popular magazines of the day. Most notably among these were The Country Gentleman, Judge, Leslie’s Weekly, Life Magazine, and The Literary Digest. The Country Gentleman and The Literary Digest, in particular, featured Rockwell’s work a total of eighty-two times combined over the course of thirty-two years.10
WWI and U.S. Navy Service
In 1918, in light of the country’s ongoing involvement in the First World War, Rockwell decided to put his career on hold in order to enlist in the U.S. Navy. Unfortunately — at 6 ft. 140 lbs. — the twenty-three year old would-be swabbie was eight pounds underweight! In order to compensate, and acting on the advice of his recruiter, Rockwell went home and binged on bananas, doughnuts, and as much water as he could keep down before re-taking the enlistment test. The strategy worked, and before long Seaman Rockwell was deemed fit for duty!
Originally, Rockwell‘s orders were to report to a base in Ireland, in order to paint insignia on military planes. However, German submarine activity in the Atlantic resulted in his transport being re-routed to Charleston, SC. Soon, the young sailor found himself assigned to illustrate for Afloat and Ashore, the Charleston Navy Yard’s official publication, and he would hold this billet for the duration of his enlistment. He was granted permission to set up his studio on the U.S.S. Hartford, made famous by Admiral Farragut’s daring actions during the Civil War, immortalized by the phrase: “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!”
Though he was not fated to engage any of Kaiser Bill’s forces during his tenure as a military man, Rockwell did survive a particularly nasty bout with the Spanish Flu, which swept through Charleston in 1918. Other than that, his time as a sailor was relatively uneventful, and before long the Great War had ended. Rockwell — and many others —were promptly discharged from the Navy amid the government’s post-war military downsizing, and the young artist once again found himself back to “civvies.”11
In 1930, Norman and his wife Irene divorced, and in low-spirits the newly bachelored artist relocated to Alhambra, CA, to stay as a guest of his old pal Clyde Forsythe. During this time, Rockwell courted and married his second wife, a schoolteacher named Mary Barstow. Before long, the couple had relocated to 24 Lord Kitchener Road, in New Rochelle, NY. This house was located in the Bonnie Crest neighborhood of New Rochelle, which had been home to such famous illustrators as J.C. and Frank Leyendecker, as well as Howard Chandler Christy.
Though not overly religious,12 the Rockwell’s joined a local Episcopal parish — St. John’s Wilmot Church — and even elected to have their sons baptized there.13 Norman and Mary had three children together: Jarvis Waring; Thomas Rhodes; and Peter Barstow. In 1939 the family moved to Arlington, VT, and Rockwell’s work began to emulate small-town life.
WWII Era and Patriotic Contributions
During the 1940s, the U.S. once again became embroiled in a massive conflict between nations, as Adolf Hitler’s German-led axis attempted to conquer the globe. Inspired by an address made by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to Congress, Rockwell painted some of his most famous works. Included among these were the Four Freedoms series — Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Want, and Freedom from Fear — completed in seven months during 1943. Due to this rigorous pace, the hard-working artist lost fifteen pounds!
The paintings were published by The Saturday Evening Post in four successive issues, accompanied by critical essays by contemporary authors. In order to raise money for our soldiers overseas, the U.S. Treasury Department (in collaboration with the Post), sponsored a tour in which the original Freedoms paintings were featured in sixteen cities, resulting in over $130 million dollars in war bond sales. Rockwell himself favored Freedom of Speech most out of the four.14
Also in 1943, a fire destroyed Rockwell’s Arlington studio, and a wealth of original paintings, costumes, and other various materials were lost. This event marked a split in the artist’s career, as many of the costumes in his studio were period-specific, and therefore irreplaceable. As such, the work done by Rockwell post-fire, are considered to be in his “modern” portfolio.
As the 1940s were drawing to a close, a middle-aged Rockwell began spending his winters at the Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles, CA, taking on the role of Artist-in-Residence. Some students were fortunate enough to become models for his painting. In 1949, he donated an original Post cover — April Fool — to be raffled off in a fundraiser for the school’s library.15
Rockwell in Stockbridge, Massachusetts
In 1953, the Rockwell’s again moved to a new homestead, this time to Stockbridge, MA, so that Mary could seek treatment at the Austen Riggs Center, a nearby psychiatric facility. At 25 Main St, the ARC was located right down the street from the building where Norman set up his studio. Erik Erikson,16 the noted developmental psychologist most famous for his theories on psycho-social development — as well as for coming up with the phrase “identity crisis” — was on staff at the ARC while Mary was a patient there. During his wife’s treatment, Rockwell opted to allow Dr. Erikson to perform psychoanalysis on him, during which the artist was reportedly told that he “painted his happiness, but did not live it.”
Living happily or not, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce nevertheless chose to recognize Rockwell as a “great living American” in 1957. The self-described “illustrator” had by now become one of the most well-known artists in the United States, and his endearing scenes depicting everyday life had solidified his legend in popular culture. Rockwell’s art was identified by many as the metaphoric American standard — real or imagined — and of our nation’s spirit of benevolence, courage, justice, and tolerance.
It was for these same reasons that Rockwell had such a large number of detractors. To some artists and critics, his innocence was interpreted as naiveté; his sentimentality was dismissed as improbable, and his good-natured portrayal of American living was decried as an outright perjury. Individuals such as these even coined the term “Rockwell-esque,” to be flung as insult at any artist who dared to express the kind of patriotism and goodwill employed by Norman Rockwell in his work.
Vladimir Nabokov,17 author of the (not quite) family-friendly classic Lolita, felt that Rockwell’s stellar technique had been wasted in banal pursuits — a bold accusation coming from a Lepidoptera enthusiast! From Nabokov’s novel Pnin:
"Salvador Dalí is really Norman Rockwell's twin brother kidnapped by Gypsies in babyhood."
In 1959, Rockwell became the very first inductee into the Society of Illustrators Hall of Fame. However, tragedy struck in this same year when Mary Rockwell died unexpectedly from a heart attack. Norman chose to take a break from work in order to grieve her passing, and it was during this time that he and son Thomas wrote the semi-autobiographical work “My Adventures as an Illustrator” (published in 1960).
Later Works and Legacy
Rockwell married his third wife — a retired English teacher from Milton Academy named Molly Punderson — in October of 1961. (Interestingly, the couple were first introduced through the former Mrs. — as well as Mr. — Rockwell's therapist: Erik Erikson!)18 At sixty-seven years of age, the artist had lived as a part our society through seventeen Presidential administrations, the advent of radio and television, the proliferation of automobiles, the first flight, and two World Wars. Through it all, Rockwell’s portrayal of an idyllic standard of American living had earned him legions of adoring fans as well as his fair share of naysayers. But as the artist entered the twilight of his career, his work began to reflect some of the more controversial issues confronting the United States.
Throughout the 1960s, Rockwell would produce paintings dealing with such thoughtful subjects as the African-American Civil Rights Movement — including The Problem We All Live With (1963) — mankind’s odyssey to the moon, and the War on Poverty. Additionally, he and wife Molly co-produced the children’s book Willie Was Different in 1967. The 60s also marked the end of a relationship that had spanned half-a-century, as Rockwell submitted his last cover for The Saturday Evening Post, before going to work for Look Magazine.
Some of Rockwell’s final projects included doing celebrity portraits, and stars such as John Wayne, Frank Sinatra, and Judy Garland traveled to Stockbridge in order to have the honor of being painted by the legendary American artist. Several Presidents also had their portraits done by Rockwell, including Dwight Eisenhower, John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, and Richard Nixon. In 1977, the highest award that can be bestowed upon an American civilian was given to Rockwell, as he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, for “[V]ivid and affectionate portraits of our country.”
On November 8, 1978, Norman Rockwell died at his and Molly’s home in Stockbridge, due to complications from emphysema. Throughout his life, Rockwell produced over four thousand paintings, illustrations, and drawings — many of which that are now preserved by the Norman Rockwell Museum, in Stockbridge, MA (http://www.nrm.org).19, 20 The enduring legacy of his vision for American potential — of patriotism, kindness, duty and nobility — that is so personified in his work, continues to serve as a source of inspiration for Americans everywhere. For We, the People, who live to see the day where the high ideals of our nation are realized — though our spirits be sapped by the (seemingly) unending sludge of corruption and hypocrisy that threatens to overwhelm even the most steadfast of hearts — must look no further than the art of Norman Rockwell, to remind us of the great heights to which we may yet ascend.
Which kind of an art collector are you?
Norman Rockwell Paintings, Prints, Lithographs, and Other Art for Sale
For the Serious Collector:
Jazz It Up is a lithograph by Norman Rockwell, produced in 1976, and is available from Amazon's Fine Art Department. The work is signed and numbered (90/200) in pencil by the artist, and is 24" x 17". The frame of white-gold wood is 37" x 29" x 1".
In the piece, a straight-laced trombonist is thoughtfully stroking his mustache in front of a display table featuring an advertisement for a saxophone. The ad encourages viewers to "Jazz it Up with a SAX," and an arrangement of flyers and records depicting prominent jazz players compliments the display. The actual saxophone is placed enticingly in its stand towards the middle of the table, slightly left of center.
For the Hobbyist:
You don't have to be overly affluent to enjoy Norman Rockwell! High-quality prints for many of the late artist's most important paintings are available on Amazon. What follows are portal links to some of your author's favorite pieces, followed by a brief description and relevant background information. I will be adding to this list continuously, so check back often!
Freedom of Speech (1943)
This print is a reproduction of the first of the Four Freedoms series of paintings by Norman Rockwell — Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Want, and Freedom from Fear — which were all completed in 1943. The paintings were inspired by the State of the Union address that President Franklin Delano Roosevelt gave before Congress on January 6, 1941. Freedom of Speech, which was known to be Rockwell's favorite of the four, was featured on the February 20, 1943 cover of The Saturday Evening Post.
Freedom of Worship (1943)
The second of the Four Freedoms series, Freedom of Worship depicts the adherents of several religions standing close to one another. From the right front, there is a Jewish man with head bowed in homage, a Protestant woman with hands held together in prayer, and a Catholic woman clutching a rosary. Another of the more successful paintings in the series, Freedom of Worship was featured on the February 27, 1943 cover of The Saturday Evening Post.
The American Way (1944)
Completed in 1944, The American Way depicts a soldier feeding a little girl in Europe, while on deployment during the second Wold War. The soldier's kind face and gentle manner stands in stark contrast to his army helmet, uniform, and Thompson sub-machine gun. The overlying theme here is American benevolence, strength, and a commitment to what is right born of unflinching moral certitude. "What have you done to make the world a better place, today?" the painting all but asks.
This art print of the original oil painting would make a fine addition to any sitting room or parlor, and provides a constant reminder of the high ideals for which our country prides Herself on, as well as the great sacrifice that our soldiers paid to help save the world from tyranny. Though Rockwell is widely criticized by detractors for his idyllic portrayal of Americans and American life, it is important to remember that only by striving for perfection do we ultimately improve upon our failings. So, why not let this ideal reproduction of The American Way inspire you to be all that you can be!
The Problem We All Live With (1963)
The Problem We All Live With is the first of three Norman Rockwell paintings with a civil rights theme. This painting depicts the walk of six year old Ruby Bridges, and her U.S. Federal Marshal escort, into the recently de-segregated William Frantz public school on November 14, 1960. The painting was completed in 1963, and was featured on the cover of Look magazine on January 14, 1964. Other works by Rockwell inspired by the African-American Civil Rights Movement include Southern Justice (Murder in Mississippi) (1965), and New Kids in the Neighborhood (1967).
From July to October of 2011, President Obama had the original The Problem We All Live With displayed in the White House, beside the Oval Office. On July 15 of that year, Ruby Bridges paid a visit to the President in Washington, and the two were able to view the painting together. Once the original had hung in the White House for several months, it was returned to the Norman Rockwell Museum, in Stockbridge, MA, where the painting is displayed to this day.
But even if you do not want to travel to Massachusetts, you can still celebrate this important moment in our nation's history, by placing an Amazon art print of The Problem We All Live With by Norman Rockwell on the wall in your home or office! This high quality 20" X 24" replica comes pre-housed in a two-inch wide wood frame, secured with high grade museum quality acrylic. Each print is custom packed for safety by a reputable seller (5-star rating), and fast delivery is guaranteed!
Norman Rockwell on eBay
eBay is a great place to find Norman Rockwell art and other collectibles! An updating portal to the auction site has been provided to the right, with revised search parameters designed to narrow the field of displayed items to paintings (originals, prints, and lithographs) and other works by, or inspired by, the artist. A random piece from the portal listing for which bids are being accepted will always be displayed, and you can click on the link to see more details about the particular auction showcased.
Once an auction ends, a new piece will be selected for the portal showcase, based on those same revised search fields. Even if you are not interested in the specific work being showcased at the time, you can still click on the portal and peruse the other Norman P. Rockwell art currently being auctioned on eBay. The selection on the site ranges from original works to prints, lithographs to photographs, commemorative plates, postcards, and even figurines!
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- Historical events for year 1894 [Internet]. [Place unknown]: historyorb.com; [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.historyorb.com/events/date/1894
- Distinguished educator in the arts - Thomas Fogarty, 2009 honoree. New York, NY: The Society of Illustrators; [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.societyillustrators.org/Awards-and-Competitions/Distinguished-Educator/Past-Honorees/2009-Thomas-Fogarty.aspx
- George Brandt Bridgman (1865-1943) [Internet]. [Place unknown]: Askart.com; [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.askart.com/AskART/B/george_brandt_bridgman/george_brandt_bridgman.aspx
- Distinguished educator in the arts - Frank Vincent DuMond, 2013 honoree [Internet]. New York, NY: The Society of Illustrators; [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.societyillustrators.org/Educator.aspx?id=9691&terms=frank+vincent+dumond
- Watkins, L. Art: the prismatic palette [Internet]. Mt. Marion, NY: Art Times; 2012 Jun [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.arttimesjournal.com/art/Art_Essays/May_Jun_12_Leslie_Watkins/The_Prismatic_Palette.html
- Carl H. Claudy, father of the short talk [Internet]. Cambridge, MA: MIT; [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://web.mit.edu/dryfoo/Masons/Claudy/claudy-bio.html
- Norman Rockwell biography [Internet]. Indianapolis, IN: The Saturday Evening Post; [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.saturdayeveningpost.com/artists-gallery/saturday-evening-post-cover-artists/norman-rockwell-gallery/norman-rockwell-biography
- Norman Rockwell [Internet]. Irving, TX: National Scouting Museum; [cited 2014 Jul 8]. Available from:
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- Hills, W. Norman Rockwell at the Charelston Navy Yard [Internet]. Mount Pleasant, SC: patriotspoint.org; 2010 Jun 9 [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.patriotspoint.org/news_events/norman-rockwell-at-the-charleston-navy-yard/
- Schuman, W. My father, Norman Rockwell [Internet]. [Place unknown]: beliefnet.com; [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.beliefnet.com/Inspiration/2006/10/My-Father-Norman-Rockwell.aspx
- Kelly, K. Norman Rockwell [Internet]. Elmsford, NY: Westchester County Historical Society; [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.westchesterhistory.com/index.php/exhibits/people?display=rockwell
- Guise, K. The four freedoms: freedom from fear/freedom from want/freedom of worship/freedom of speech [Internet]. New Orleans, LA: The National WWII Museum (New Orleans); 2013 Feb 20, 2013 Feb 27, 2013 Mar 6, 2013 Mar 13 [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: whttp://www.nww2m.com/tag/four-freedoms/
- Illustrated timeline [Internet]. Los Angeles, CA; Otis College of Arts and Design; [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.otis.edu/sites/default/files/OMAG1918-2008timeline.pdf
- Sharkey, W. Erik Erikson [Internet]. New Concord, OH: Muskingum University; 1997 May [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/erikson.htm
- Proffer, E. Vladmir Nabokov: a pictorial biography (excerpt) [Internet]. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University; circa 1991 [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.libraries.psu.edu/nabokov/bio.htm
- Kino, C. Preserving a Rockwell era [Internet]. New York, NY: The New York Times; 2009 Mar 16 [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/19/arts/artsspecial/19STUDIO.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
- About Norman Rockwell [Internet]. Stockbridge, MA: Norman Rockwell Museum; [cited 2013 Oct 30]. Available from: http://www.nrm.org/about-2/about-norman-rockwell/
- Wikipedia contributors. Norman Rockwell [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; 2013 Oct 31, 23:56 UTC [cited 2013 Oct 31]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Norman_Rockwell&oldid=579677927.
- "Slim Finegan." Source: Norman Rockwell, PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Circa 1916. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Rockwell_-_Slim_Finnegan_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
- ''Norman P. Rockwell (1894-1978)' (circa 1921). Source: Underwood & amp; Underwood, PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rockwell-Norman-LOC.jpg
- 'Self-Portrait' (circa 1920). Source: Norman Rockwell, PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Rockwell_-_Self-portrait_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
- 'An elderly Mr. Rockwell enjoys a smoke on his pipe.' Source: Author Unknown, PD-Gov, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NormanRockwell.jpeg
- 'Scout at Ship's Wheel' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1913). Source: PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Rockwell-_Scout_at_Ships_Wheel.jpg
- 'Fishing Trip, They'll be Coming Back Next Week' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1919). Source: PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Rockwell_-_Fishing_Trip,_They'll_Be_Coming_Back_Next_Week_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
- 'The Catch' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1919). Source: PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Rockwell_-_Catch,_The_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
- 'Hey Fellers, Come On In!' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1920). Source: PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Rockwell_-_Hey_Fellers,_Come_On_In!_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
- 'No Swimming' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1921). Source: PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Rockwell_-_No_Swimming_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
- 'Boy with Baby Carriage' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1916). Source: PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Rockwell_-_Boy_with_Baby_Carriage_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
- 'The Stuff of Which Memories Are Made' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1920). Source: cliff1066™, CC-BY 2.0, via Flickr (2010 Oct 8). Available from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/5223917609/
- 'Vacation's Over (Girl Returning from Summer Trip)' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1921). Source: PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Rockwell_-_Vacation's_Over_(Girl_Returning_from_Summer_Trip_)_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
- 'Freedom of Speech' by Norman Rockwell (1943). Source: Norman Rockwell, PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%22Freedom_of_Speech%22_-_NARA_-_513536.jpg
- 'Freedom of Worship' by Norman Rockwell (1943). Source: Norman Rockwell, PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%22Freedom_of_Worship%22_-_NARA_-_513537.jpg
- 'Freedom from Want' by Norman Rockwell (1943). Source: Norman Rockwell, PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%22Freedom_from_Fear%22_-_NARA_-_513538.jpg
- 'Freedom from Fear' by Norman Rockwell (1943). Source: Norman Rockwell, PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%22Freedom_from_Fear%22_-_NARA_-_513538.jpg
- Madison, Florida: Four Freedoms Monument, inspired by a speech by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941. Source: Ebyabe, CC-BY-SA-3.0, via Wikimedia Commons (2011 May 24). Available from: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Madison_FL_4_Freedoms_mnmt08.jpg
- 'Pardon Me (Children Dancing at a Party)' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1918). Source: cliff1066™, PD-Time, via Flickr (2010 Sep 23). Available from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/5224513416/
- 'Courting Couple at Midnight' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1919). Source: James Vaughan, PD-Time, via Flickr (2009 Sep 23). Available from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/x-ray_delta_one/3947938762/
- 'Scouting With Daniel Boone' by Norman Rockwell (circa 1914). Source: Norman Rockwell, PD-Time, via Wikimedia Commons. Available from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Norman_Rockwell_-_Scouting_With_Daniel_Boone_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
© 2013 Earl Noah Bernsby