- Arts and Design
Paper Automata | Free Templates, Fun Design Ideas and Mechanism Info
Roundup of How-Tos & Free Toys to Make
Paper automata are mechanical models which are powered by human input - usually in the form of a crank - and this leads to a range of movements from simple back and forth actions to multiple types of movement at once.
Automata are usually either wood or paper, with paper obviously being much easier, quicker and more versatile to use, and wood being more long-lasting and hard wearing. Most of the mechanical toys are whimsical and fun in style and are meant as curiosities or heirlooms, with the fun being as much in the making of them as it is in the end result.
Knowledge of cams and simple mechanical systems is necessary if you plan on creating your own designs from scratch, but otherwise there are plenty of templates you can buy or find for free online, many of which you will find listed below.
I hope you find this page interesting, and I hope you have fun making your own automata :-)
Banjo Strummer & Foot Tapper
Top-Rated Automata Books
Books are an excellent resource for paper automata makers because they contain all the info you need in one place, plus expert instruction and tips, and the best thing is that some books contain pre-printed patterns that you can cut out and use straight from the book. Here is a selection of the best options:
An Introduction To The Basic Mechanisms
The difference between a paper model/sculpture and a paper automaton is that an automaton needs to contain at least one mechanism in order to create a movement.
Here are a few main mechanisms and devices you will frequently see when making your own paper automata:
- Cams and followers: You will find a 'cam' in almost all automata, and it is always paired with a 'follower'. The mechanism is designed to turn a rotary movement into a back-and-forth (reciprocating) movement. A cam is a flat, often round shape with a hole through it. A shaft (a rod) goes through the hole and it is around this shaft that the cam rotates. The cam can be all kinds of shapes including a circle, oval or heart, and the hole through which the shaft goes can be through the centre of the cam or can be off-centre. These variances are what create different kinds of reciprocating movement, via the 'follower'.
A follower is a rod which has one end that rests on the rotating cam's edge and therefore moves up and down in a certain way depending on the shape of the cam. The follower is what translates the rotation into a specific pattern of reciprocating movement.
- Crank Slider: A crank is a mechanism that also converts a rotary movement into a reciprocating movement (or vice versa). The crank is the part that rotates, and it can be as simple as a flat circle shape, whilst a slider is a long thin rigid shape that is attached (via a hinge/pivot) at a right angle to the crank so that it is offset from the centre line. As the crank rotates, the slider follows the circular movement and translates this into a back-and-forth motion within an enclosure. The slider part is called the slider because it slides within an enclosure, in order to control the movement. See this mechanism demonstrated here and here.
The handle on the side a paper automaton is most commonly a crank mechanism.
- Linkages: These mechanisms are created by linking together a series of levers using pivots or joints that allow the linkage to move freely. Linkages are very useful for producing a specific direction of movement. Click here and here for diagrams and more information about linkages.
- Levers: These are the most simple of mechanisms and sometimes a paper automaton consists solely of a lever mechanism where the user presses one side of the lever (a flat and long piece of rigid paper), which pivots on a fulcrum point and delivers an 'up' motion at the other end of the lever. Have a look at the mechanism in action here.
Different Types of Cam - (A Major Component of Automata)
1) Eccentric cam: This is a simple circular cam shape with a center of rotation that's not actually in the center. The cam rotates about this point (shown with a white dot on the diagram) and in paper models this is usually a rectangular tube, and in wood automata it is usually a cylindrical dowel.
The further off-center it is, the more movement you will produce. The motion is a steady and constant up-down motion.
2) Drop/snail cam: This cam can only be rotated one way otherwise the mechanism would get stuck. It produces a steady up motion followed by a sudden drop for each rotation.
3) Pear/lobed cam: This produces a more pronounced up-and-down motion compared to the eccentric cam, and there is also not a constant movement - the motion is up, down, still, up, down, still... etc.
4) Oval cam: This produces two up-and-down movements in one rotation.
5) Circular cam: This has a point in the center of the circle, and therefore produces no movement.
6) Irregular cam: This fan-shaped example would create an up motion, then no motion (also called 'dwell'), then back down again and no motion. This would be one rotation.
There are various other designs you can use for cams, including hearts and hexagons, but you only find the simplest shapes in paper automata. If you would like to experiment with irregular or more complicated cams you would find far fewer limitations when working with wood.
1) is probably the most popular cam, and 2) and 3) also feature often in paper and wood models.
Cams & Followers
Cams are the basis of most automata and come in many different shapes. Pear-shaped cams like the one shown here are very popular, and the rods which rest on top of them are called followers (and are usually tubes made of folded card).
The followers convert the rotary cam motion to up-and-down motion. Looking at the labelled diagram, the cam is the same distance from the center to the outer edge between marks A and B as marked with the line. When the the follower is resting on any of this edge between A and B, therefore, it stays level at the same height and doesn't move.
As the cam rotates, the follower will start to rise as it travels along the edge of the cam from A to C. C is the peak height of the follower. Then from C to B the follower lowers back down to the original height.
The Dog Ate My Homework
Beginner's Lessons & Tips
- Tools You Need
What you need to start out in this craft.
- Mechanisms & Motions
Extremely helpful list of the types of motion and available gears, cams etc.
- Cutting & Gluing Techniques
How to accurate cut and stick your paper pieces.
- How to Design Your Own
A walkthrough of the stages of designing your own automata.
- Paper Engineering Book
Browse this handy paper crafts book for free.
- The Making of an Automata Design
Awesome step-by-step tutorial on creating an animated paper robot.
- Basic Papercrafting Techniques
Handy guide which is free to download.
- Mechanical Toys Guide
Lots of information about making paper, wood and metal mechanisms.
- Wood Mechanics Tips
Advice on different aspects of wooden automata building.
- Technology Student
Index of cams and mechanisms - an ideal guide for beginners.
- Walter Ruffler Mechanics
A gallery of automata plus info on cams and linkages.
- Cardboard Automata
A pdf file inspiring you to experiment with mechanisms created with card.
- Paper Model Video Tutorial
A walkthrough of cutting and scoring card.
Free Templates & Toys 1
- Mechanical Elephant & Monkey
Download and make these instrument-playing animals.
- Moving Mechanisms
Printable animals and other fun designs.
- Cardbawdy Fun
Hilarious tortoise and rabbit designs to download.
- Andy Warhol
I love this bobblehead papercraft.
- Agreeable Sheep
Cute crank-driven toy with a nodding sheep.
- Simple Crank Slider
A good exercise to practice making this type of mechanism.
- People in a Buggy
Buggy car with people that move up and down.
- Animated Coffin
Spooky design from Disney's 'The Haunted Mansion'.
- Fun Christmas Toy
Cheerful design complete with Santa in a chimney.
Whimsical Wooden Model
Free Templates & Toys 2
- Paper Super Mario
Fun gaming design with a classic Mario action.
Click the little arrow icons to download.
- Mechanical Bat
Halloween themed automaton bat with flapping wings.
- Cat, Sea Lion, Horse & More
Scroll down to find the 6 free models.
- 20 Mechanical Models
Including a popular moving carousel.
- Walking Mechanical Warrior
Cool robotic design with a realistic walking movement.
- At the Duck's Pond
Instructions and template for ducks swimming around a pond.
- Chimney Sweep
Simple movement automata with a sweet, colourful setting.
- Lucky Cat
Build your own cat sculpture with a waving arm.
Where to Buy Kits & Downloads
Paper Automata Examples
Blogs, Inspiration & Ideas
- Rob Ives
A leading expert on paper automata.
- Cabaret Mechanical Theatre
Loads of amazing wooden automata videos.
- Keith Newstead Blog
A blog full of inspiring wooden automata and design drawings.
- Carlos Zapata Kinetic Sculpture
Some intricate examples of kinetic wood models.
- Pendulum Powered Butterfly
Pretty design with a movement created by a weighted pendulum.
- Mario Brothers Automaton
Plus a useful diagram of the different parts of an automaton.