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All you need to know about tires

Updated on May 8, 2012

A tire's main functions are:

- Absorb small road irregularities;

-Transmit to the ground efforts of traction, braking and cornering;

-Support all the forces applied on it (vehicle weight, centrifugal force, load, etc.).

The grip:

It depends mainly on the type of rubber compound used in the tire and the condition of the road (dry, wet, abrasive, smooth, clean and dirty). The grip is usually achieved at the expense of durability.

Areasof a tire:

Everytire iscomposed of fourmain parts:

Body Plies:

It is resistant area of the tire, constituted of belts polyester, nylon or steel. It retains the air pressure to support the weight of the vehicle. In the radial tire there is increasing resistance because of radial plies.


Consists of internally steel wires of high strength and is intended to keep the tire attached to the rim.

Tread Area:

Is the portion of the tire that comes into direct contact with the ground. It is formed by a rubber compound which offers great resistance to wear. The tracks consist of shares filled and empty (grooves) and offer to vehicle performance and safety.


The sidewallis thearea between thetreadandthe tire beads. Thesidewallis the heightof the tire. Its functions are:
-To resistlateral forces
-Assistin the stabilityand comfort
-Supportthe weight

Types ofconstruction:

There are essentially three types of construction of a tire, diagonal belts, radial belts and mixed fabrics.

Diagonal tires:

Also called conventional, has a textile carcass plies consisting of a cross relative to each other.

Radial tires:

The carcass consists of one or more plies in which the filaments are parallel to the radial direction. This structure is stabilized by belts under the tread. These tires are the most widely used today.

Radial tires advantages:

- Longer duration;
- Fuel economy;
- Better grip;
- Accelerating and braking more efficient;
- Better cornering.

Types oftires:

There are basically two types of tires with or without inner tube (tubeless).
The basic difference is within tire. The tubeless feature in an internal layer of special rubber, called "liner" (coat), which ensures the retention of air. Must be mounted on suitable rims, using special valves.
Comparison of tires with inner tube and tubeless tires:
When a chamber is pierced wilt it instantly, the valve is pulled inside the tire and air exhausts through the orifice rapidly compromising the stability and safety of the vehicle.
When a tubeless tire is punctured the air flow can occur only through the orifice of the perforation and the valve is attached to the rim. The leak is very slow and when the object remains in place of the hole is surrounded by sealing to slow down causing further reducing the possibility of the vehicle sidetracked or losing the tire.

Referenceslistedon the tire:

All tires have on their flanks a large amount of information: many are represented by codes due to the limited space available and others may be in English due to export requirements, meeting the standards of other countries.
1-Brand Manufacturer
2-Tire Model
3-Dimensions (width and height / width)
4-Load Index / velocidade5-code version tubeless tire (Tubeless) or camera (Tube Type)
6-Position of the wear indicators TWI (Tread Wear Indicator), when met, indicate the time of removal of the tires used (1.6 mm - the legal limit)
7-Codes for internal manufacturing control.
8-Place of manufacture.
9-Registration DOT - Indicates establishment of production, tire type and period of manufacture.
10-Data on the structure of the tire: export requirement
11-Load and maximum pressure: export requirement
12-Registration approval.
13-Certification Symbol
14-Rating of the tire with a UTQG (Uniform Tire Quality Grading)
15-Means "Mud and Snow": export requirement.

Contact surface:

The shape of the contact surface of the tire with the road determines the performance and behavior. This contact surface is dependent on tire profile.

The low profile tires have a contact surface short but wide which facilitates the response to the orders of the car driver, handling, stability, cornering and traction, especially in dry conditions.

The high-profile tires have a contact surface long and narrow which helps provide a predictable behavior, more comfortable and have better traction in rain.


There are many tire tread designs, however we can distinguish three basic types, namely:
Striated (grooves in the longitudinal direction);
Wedge (grooves in the transverse direction);
Wedge and striated (grooves in both directions).


The slots are in the longitudinal direction of the vehicle and this tire is suitable for use in an asphalt because it is obtained with a good stability at high speeds and lower noise.


The slots are in the transverse direction of the vehicle, providing greater traction and braking power.

Wedge and striated:

This type combines the features of the two previous.

Tire pressure:

If the pressure is not identical for tires on the same axle can lead to abnormal behavior of the vehicle. The correct pressure for the tire can be found in the vehicle’s manual. Driving with low pressure tires can cause overheating and lead to premature destruction of the tire. Also do not exceed the maximum allowable pressure for each tire. If you change the tire measures may be necessary to change the tire pressure. You should check the pressure regularly as climate change or small holes can cause changes.
If the tires are more likely to spend in the center, this can mean an excessive pressure. If spend more of the sides may be due to the use of tires with a very low pressure.
The tire pressure should be checked when tires are cold, otherwise, the heat indoor air may cause a wrong indication.

Rotating tires:

It is advisable to rotate the tires to prevent them from having a non-uniform wear, being made ​​with the same rotation rules.
The rotation should be done every 10,000 km or whenever there is marked difference in wear between front and rear pairs.
If tires are radial construction tire change should only be made ​​on the same side, front to back and vise versa.


Each time that a tire is placed on the rim the assembly should be balanced. In balancing should be checked two types of imbalances, static and dynamic.
The static causes vertical oscillatory motion of the wheels and the dynamic horizontal oscillatory movements.

Tires inspection:

For the preservation of the tires is very important to periodically perform a general inspection of your state by checking the uniformity of consumption and that there are no deformations in the tread or sidewall, or even if there are any foreign objects on the floor.


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