The automotive safety devices are divided into active and passive safety systems and many of them are now required by law, therefore provided as standard when purchasing a car.
The factor that contributed to the dissemination of the study and implementation of security systems is increasing the number of fatalities in road accidents, high in the world. Since the early progress in the automotive field with substantial improvements have taken place concerning the brake systems is the study of past frames and bodies crumple to crash, accident simulation testing increasingly sophisticated.
The conclusions of these studies were also gradually implemented by the legislative bodies that have adopted the compulsory nature of the most important safety systems. In Italy, for several years, is required to assembly and use of safety belts and the last device to be considered imperative was the ABS.
In addition to the safety of adult occupants of a vehicle, particularly important are also devices that can be used for child restraint, such as child seats in conjunction with safety belts or even better, the special car seat anchored directly through specific points of attachment, defined by international standards ISOfix
The devices can be:
Active, involved in order to reduce the chance of encountering an adverse event
ABS device that prevents the wheels from locking
ESP electronic stability control devices dynamics, which also improves the functionality of the ABS
TCS, reduces wheelspin and improves stability
Passives are protections that reduce the physical consequences of injury
Frame chassis with its different areas of compressibility is able to absorb some of impact
Safety belts tool that allows you to avoid the ejection of the body out of the cockpit or the collision with the steering wheel and other parts of the car
Air bag system that aids the task of seat belts
Seats held devices used for children, where conventional devices for adults as well as being ineffective may be deleterious
Some devices have resulted in a different way of dealing with driving a vehicle in a car equipped with ABS for example, you can also stop a background in critical condition since the system itself that provides to prevent the wheels from locking. The Hard braking was instead to be avoided in the past, especially in terms of wet asphalt or otherwise slippery surfaces.
It is becoming increasingly widespread use of new vehicles to submit evidence of crash tests conducted by independent, supranational, such as in Europe by EuroNCAP, to objectively assess the degree of protection offered by modern cars. However, in many cases, the objective of obtaining the highest marks in the EuroNCAP tests established designers deviate from the study of other security structures are not subject to tests performed by that institution.
Often the presence of these accessories is a form of added value on which the automakers also link the various advertising campaigns.