Water Injection System For Cars (Aquamist)
The injection of water into an engine is a method of tuning consists of injecting water as an inert state vaporized in the intake manifold of internal combustion engines. It can therefore be considered a cross between an internal combustion engine and steam engine.
The first had the idea to inject water into the internal combustion engine was Pierre Hugon in 1865 on its gas engine. He saw how this will eliminate the defects of power and keeping the bike. Then the system also experienced engine oil light and heavy oil, having the same improvements as well as better cleaning tar deposits. He also noticed a clear reduction of wear in mechanical components.
This technology ignored for a long time.
The only mass-produced engine to use this system were propeller aircraft engines of World War II including:
-The Daimler-Benz DB 605 MW plant with 50
-Pratt & Whitney R-2800.
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In internal combustion engines, contrary to what is commonly believed, is not the heat produced by burning fuel to create power, but the difference in pressure of incoming gas than those produced in the combustion chamber.
According to this principle, then, the engines are under-utilized in their normal operation with only the burning of gasoline and air. Confirmation of this is that the exhaust gases still very hot out, that with further thermodynamic potential.
Practical And Results
In an engine with water injection the gas out at a temperature significantly lower, since it was removed from the water to evaporate, in fact, the evaporating water is a compound that greatly increases the volume and this makes it the ideal medium to create combustion chamber at a pressure higher than the same volume of inlet gas, and then increases and decreases the power consumption (with the same mileage as committed space for incoming gas, which reduced consumption is proportional ).
Since it is an incompressible liquid in itself causes an increase in compression ratio. Also absorb the heat produced by combustion results in better engine efficiency and extends life by reducing wear and prolonging the life of the engine oil and spark plugs. Thanks to lower temperatures nitrogen oxides are also reduced.
There are many different systems are all very expensive, it is therefore use of hand fans implant systems created by itself. This is facilitated because the rate adjustment is automatic, that once you find the exact proportion of this is independent of engine speed as a low-speed and can use more water at high speed has to use less water (meant for each turn) and this means that the amount of water introduced is in order in time. The water is injected immediately after the throttle through an aerosol spray type.
In cars equipped with the usual processing is removed from cooling the radiator, now devoid of unnecessary and even detrimental thermostatic valve is useful because it takes away heat from the engine.
Using this system can be mounted turbochargers much harder. Some, only in order to increase power capacity in the same race car, using a mixture of water and methanol. In the U.S., this method is known as "anti-detonating injection," or ADI. D winter 'is still useful to add a little' as antifreeze.
Processing more extreme is to replace the pistons with normal piston dome head (also called or raised roof), so as to increase the compression ratio in order to increase the specific power, can do, because thanks to the working temperatures lower and the absence of carbon deposits was virtually eliminated the danger of detonation.
This system has flaws:
-Major smoke, a car equipped with this system makes a lot of white smoke exhaust, consisting of the greater amount of water vapor.
-Distilled water, you can not use ordinary water as it contains salts
-Ineffectiveness of existing catalytic systems, catalytic converter, which requires high temperatures to carry out its purpose, is still in extreme cold.
However, in a car with water injection, the engine produces very few emissions, less than a normal car with a new catalytic converter, especially for nitrogen oxides, which are almost zero.
-Application on older vehicles, in the old cars was a problem in advance and adjusting the carburetion and today these problems no longer exist because everything is controlled by the ECU via the oxygen sensor from the flow meter and other sensors.
Similar technology is used in diesel engines by mixing (using a solvent), diesel and water. The mixing process was applied through a higher affinity of oil to the water. This is not feasible in gasoline engines as its hydrophobicity is too high to be able to stable mixture.