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Biscuit making process
Automated Biscuit making process involves four basic stages namely mixing , forming ,baking and packing .
Basic ingredients for biscuit manufacturing
Flour , fat and sugar and other additives like flavours ,salts and ammonium and sodium bicarbontes.
Bakery equipments required for biscuit manufacturing
- Dough Distributors
- Gauge rolls
- Moulder or Cutter
- Packing machine
- Sugar Grinder
- Biscuit Grinder
Biscuit manufacturing consists of following process
- MIXING: This is a process where all ingredients are put together in right proportion for dough formation.These ingredient are then fed into Mixers where mixing is done and dough is prepared for molding .Major ingredients are flour , fat ,sugar and others as per the product one would like to have.Dough temperatures play important role in biscuit manufacturing .Next important factor is mixing time . Mixing time depends upon flour characteristics.Normally mixing time is between 10- 15 min and is performed in two or thres stages with different mixing speed .
- MOULDING: In this section we laminate the dough into sheet which then passes down to gauge rollers and sheet thickness is achieved for cutting . Here we have a cutter or a moulder as per the variety where one gets the shape and sizes of biscuits .Moulder /cutter speed again depends on different variety of biscuit.Moulders are used for short dough type of biscuit and cutters are used for sheet variety or hard dough .
- BAKING: This is the area where we pass these moulded wet biscuit into baking oven .The biscuits are baked on desired temperature s.Various type of heating are available now days as per the convenience and cost .Different type ovens are available like direct fired , indirect fired and hybrid ovens .Heating of biscuit is done by conduction , convection and radiation inside the oven .Dampers are provided to control moisture inside the oven ssection . Different heating profiles are maintain for different varities of biscuit . Normally ovens are classified as 4 zone , 5 zone or 6zone ovens where length varies from 40 mtr to 80 mtrs . Biscuits are carried on wire mesh band in oven . Baking time are different
- COOLING: These baked biscuits are then passed on to cooling conveyors for natural cooling prior to packing .The temperatures are brought down to room temperatures .The length of conveyor is sometimes 300 - 400 ft . Cooling conveors can be of two deck or 3 deck type as per space availability . Natural cooling is prefered over forced cooling as it maintains the texture quality of biscuit .
- PACKING: These biscuit are then stacked and fed into packing machine for packing. Different packing material are available for packing of these biscuit in different packs .slug packs , pouch pack or family packs etc. These packs are then put into secondary packaging like cartons to be transported to retailers.Packing material used for biscuit packaging are BOPP ,Laminates ( pearlised or metallised ) ,Pouches .
Types of biscuit
Various types of biscuit are available in market eg Plain glucose , Cracker , Digestive , Cream Sanwich ,Wafer , Enrobed and biscuits with Filling