ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Border Children (Belief Bias versus Response Bias in Business)

Updated on July 28, 2014
Source
Source

Social Responsibility and Social Media Series

Belief Bias vs. Response Bias

by Aida Garcia, Author


Border Children (Belief Bias vs. Response Bias)

In arguments all people have a pre-conceived enculturation, and it is reflective in us in our decision-making process. An issue exists on whether or not people apply belief bias or response bias in making determinations of what is observed in issues relevant in our environment today.


The definition of “belief bias” is the tendency to accept or reject a conclusion on the basis of every day knowledge regardless of its logical status, is known as “belief bias.” This is the definition according to (e.g. Cherubini, Garnham, Oakhill & Morley, 1998) The Oxford dictionary describes a belief bias as a learned mental action, condition, habit, of trusting or confiding in a person or thing.

We will explore the issues of social media and the impact of social responsibility in our current environment in our determinations of belief bias or response bias. We gather and make decisions on many of the outcomes that are constructed and developed in our lives including the issues not limited just to social media but is reflective of our entire persona or personal decision making, impressions, and determinations in business and in our personal lives.

What is social media? Social media are digital or online platforms like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and WordPress that capture the impressions, consumer consumption, behaviors, decisions, environment, personal impressions, private world, and responses of millions of members in a worldwide digital platform on the Internet or World Wide Web website. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary online (http://www.merriam-webster.com) it is a form of electronic communication (as Web sites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and content (as videos).

What is Social responsibility? Social responsibility can be scrutinized on several fronts from the consumers’ point of view to the business world view of responsibility to the current environment or community. It can be argued that it maintains the construction and development of both the Belief Bias versus the Response Bias in its determination and entirety. In gathering the information that we rely on every day in our environments it contains more information than we had previously thought in the digital world that we call social media. According to the Wikipedia dictionary online Social Responsibility is an ethical theory that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act to benefit society at large. It is also a duty to every individual to perform and maintain a balance between economy and ecosystems.

Social Responsibility is significant in the fundamental roles of individuals in society and the roles that our business leaders and business owners play in the environment digital and non-digital today. More than naught, it is the social responsibility of business leaders and companies that play a pivotal and relevant role in today’s events and issues including the concerns of the consumer’s view and value of the consumer’s dollar in our economy that play a pivotal role in issues that are crucial, especially as it relates to humanity. This is something that we are currently experiencing in the communities concern for children who are crossing the border from Central and South America and countries that are at war or have extreme criminal activity that it is affecting society at large and the humanity of our neighbors.

The primary reason for the relevance of business leaders and companies is to take and play an active role in developing and creating an effective and active role in society and societies’ ills that are currently playing out in our environment. By active participation consider the roles that the consumer and businesses play in our environment and in the digital age of business. Businesses owe a debt to the consumer to act on issues related to humanity and the human element of the environment.

Social Responsibility in the business world is a response by corporations and businesses of the issues that are prevalent and of great or serious concern in their communities. Issues that have been argued and construed in Business have included Green Energy, Discrimination, Immigration, War time affairs, Social Conscious issues, Environmental concerns, and world issues that impact society.

At present, we are debating the issues of immigration and the influx of children who are coming into the country to flee persecution in their native countries. Immigration and being a refugee are two different outcomes due to the development or construction of a dilemma in our environment.

The reason why I mentioned social media is because there is a serious concern among the public who use social media over the influx of immigrant children who are seeking asylum and fleeing their native countries because of persecution or death sentences.

In my opinion, belief bias is an empirically learned behavior of enculturation of faith, trust, and confidence. It also refers to a bias in deductive reasoning.

The definition of “response bias” according to the Oxford dictionary is a systematic tendency for respondents in a questionnaire, psychological test to give responses, which do not reflect their true beliefs typically because a question is phrased in a leading manner or because it is “socially acceptable” to answer in that manner.


The typical study of belief bias is syllogisms containing two premises and a conclusion. The validity of the conclusion is scrutinized by the linkage of the premises and relevancy to the outcome or conclusion. If there are no linkages by way of the premises then the conclusion is determined to be invalid. The preliminary data gathered is extensive, and it has been studied by many researchers in different universities. The information was gathered from the following citations: Begg & Denny, 1969; Dickstein, 1975, 1978, 1981; Johnson-Laird, 1983; Revlis, 1975; Woodworth & Sells, 1935; Evans, Barston & Pollard, 1983.

Our focus is on the studies of Evans, Barston, & Pollard, 1983 where three experiments were conducted where subjects were asked to evaluate the validity of four types of syllogisms that resulted from crossing the logical status and believability of the conclusions.

Measurements employed

A ROCs (Receiver Operating Characteristics); Interaction Index (Belief X Logic Interaction); SDT analysis; Selective Scrutiny Model; Signal Detection Model of Syllogistic Reasoning, and Multinomial Processing Tree (MPT) and the introduction of the design of Evans, Barston, & Pollard, 1983, Experiment 1.

Conclusion

All of the measurements employed produced percentages of valid or invalid conclusions with dual processes of belief bias and response bias enjoined in the resulting outcome of the decision-making process. The reason that these studies are valuable in decision-making is not only to determine the accuracy of the issue and its strengths, but includes the cross-cultural differences that bear weight in understanding the issues (premises).

In the decision-making process we place great emphasis on the impact of whether or not the use of inductive or deductive reasoning has on our given outcomes. What we must always bear in mind is that human beings come with pre-conceived notions, faith, trust, confidence, societal norms and beliefs as a result of enculturation and societal beliefs. Therefore, the result of these studies have developed meaning of dual process of 1) a developed meaning of contents with presence or absence of meaning and a stimulus function and 2) a development of motor and cognitive functions that constitutes recognition of meaning, a response bias (Wheeler & Cutsforth, 1922) it is also a definition of response function in the Oxford dictionary.

The result is if the questionnaire is phrased to lead a responder to a conclusion then the response is bias because it is enjoined in the responders reasoning when answering the question. It is a dual processed answer made in the decision-making process and regardless of whether or not the responder is instructed specifically to use logical reasoning; the results indicate that the enjoining of enculturation is prevalent in decision-making and with affects the outcome.

References

Dube, C., Rotello, C.M., Heit, E. (2010). Assessing the belief bias effect with ROCs: It is a response bias effect. Psychological Review, 117 (3); 831-863. Doi:10.1037/a0019634

Evans, J. St. B.T., Barston, J.L. & Pollard, P., (1983). On the conflict between logic and belief in syllogistic reasoning. Memory & cognition 11, 295-306

http://www.oxforddictionary.com

http://www.merriam-webster.com/

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • dilipchandra12 profile image

      Dilip Chandra 

      4 years ago from India

      So well cover about the issue. A good hub and a good share.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)