Border Children (Belief Bias versus Response Bias in Business)
Social Responsibility and Social Media Series
Belief Bias vs. Response Bias
by Aida Garcia, Author
Border Children (Belief Bias vs. Response Bias)
In arguments all people have a pre-conceived enculturation, and it is reflective in us in our decision-making process. An issue exists on whether or not people apply belief bias or response bias in making determinations of what is observed in issues relevant in our environment today.
The definition of “belief bias” is the tendency to accept or reject a conclusion on the basis of every day knowledge regardless of its logical status, is known as “belief bias.” This is the definition according to (e.g. Cherubini, Garnham, Oakhill & Morley, 1998) The Oxford dictionary describes a belief bias as a learned mental action, condition, habit, of trusting or confiding in a person or thing.
We will explore the issues of social media and the impact of social responsibility in our current environment in our determinations of belief bias or response bias. We gather and make decisions on many of the outcomes that are constructed and developed in our lives including the issues not limited just to social media but is reflective of our entire persona or personal decision making, impressions, and determinations in business and in our personal lives.
What is social media? Social media are digital or online platforms like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and WordPress that capture the impressions, consumer consumption, behaviors, decisions, environment, personal impressions, private world, and responses of millions of members in a worldwide digital platform on the Internet or World Wide Web website. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary online (http://www.merriam-webster.com) it is a form of electronic communication (as Web sites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and content (as videos).
What is Social responsibility? Social responsibility can be scrutinized on several fronts from the consumers’ point of view to the business world view of responsibility to the current environment or community. It can be argued that it maintains the construction and development of both the Belief Bias versus the Response Bias in its determination and entirety. In gathering the information that we rely on every day in our environments it contains more information than we had previously thought in the digital world that we call social media. According to the Wikipedia dictionary online Social Responsibility is an ethical theory that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act to benefit society at large. It is also a duty to every individual to perform and maintain a balance between economy and ecosystems.
Social Responsibility is significant in the fundamental roles of individuals in society and the roles that our business leaders and business owners play in the environment digital and non-digital today. More than naught, it is the social responsibility of business leaders and companies that play a pivotal and relevant role in today’s events and issues including the concerns of the consumer’s view and value of the consumer’s dollar in our economy that play a pivotal role in issues that are crucial, especially as it relates to humanity. This is something that we are currently experiencing in the communities concern for children who are crossing the border from Central and South America and countries that are at war or have extreme criminal activity that it is affecting society at large and the humanity of our neighbors.
The primary reason for the relevance of business leaders and companies is to take and play an active role in developing and creating an effective and active role in society and societies’ ills that are currently playing out in our environment. By active participation consider the roles that the consumer and businesses play in our environment and in the digital age of business. Businesses owe a debt to the consumer to act on issues related to humanity and the human element of the environment.
Social Responsibility in the business world is a response by corporations and businesses of the issues that are prevalent and of great or serious concern in their communities. Issues that have been argued and construed in Business have included Green Energy, Discrimination, Immigration, War time affairs, Social Conscious issues, Environmental concerns, and world issues that impact society.
At present, we are debating the issues of immigration and the influx of children who are coming into the country to flee persecution in their native countries. Immigration and being a refugee are two different outcomes due to the development or construction of a dilemma in our environment.
The reason why I mentioned social media is because there is a serious concern among the public who use social media over the influx of immigrant children who are seeking asylum and fleeing their native countries because of persecution or death sentences.
In my opinion, belief bias is an empirically learned behavior of enculturation of faith, trust, and confidence. It also refers to a bias in deductive reasoning.
The definition of “response bias” according to the Oxford dictionary is a systematic tendency for respondents in a questionnaire, psychological test to give responses, which do not reflect their true beliefs typically because a question is phrased in a leading manner or because it is “socially acceptable” to answer in that manner.
The typical study of belief bias is syllogisms containing two premises and a conclusion. The validity of the conclusion is scrutinized by the linkage of the premises and relevancy to the outcome or conclusion. If there are no linkages by way of the premises then the conclusion is determined to be invalid. The preliminary data gathered is extensive, and it has been studied by many researchers in different universities. The information was gathered from the following citations: Begg & Denny, 1969; Dickstein, 1975, 1978, 1981; Johnson-Laird, 1983; Revlis, 1975; Woodworth & Sells, 1935; Evans, Barston & Pollard, 1983.
Our focus is on the studies of Evans, Barston, & Pollard, 1983 where three experiments were conducted where subjects were asked to evaluate the validity of four types of syllogisms that resulted from crossing the logical status and believability of the conclusions.
A ROCs (Receiver Operating Characteristics); Interaction Index (Belief X Logic Interaction); SDT analysis; Selective Scrutiny Model; Signal Detection Model of Syllogistic Reasoning, and Multinomial Processing Tree (MPT) and the introduction of the design of Evans, Barston, & Pollard, 1983, Experiment 1.
All of the measurements employed produced percentages of valid or invalid conclusions with dual processes of belief bias and response bias enjoined in the resulting outcome of the decision-making process. The reason that these studies are valuable in decision-making is not only to determine the accuracy of the issue and its strengths, but includes the cross-cultural differences that bear weight in understanding the issues (premises).
In the decision-making process we place great emphasis on the impact of whether or not the use of inductive or deductive reasoning has on our given outcomes. What we must always bear in mind is that human beings come with pre-conceived notions, faith, trust, confidence, societal norms and beliefs as a result of enculturation and societal beliefs. Therefore, the result of these studies have developed meaning of dual process of 1) a developed meaning of contents with presence or absence of meaning and a stimulus function and 2) a development of motor and cognitive functions that constitutes recognition of meaning, a response bias (Wheeler & Cutsforth, 1922) it is also a definition of response function in the Oxford dictionary.
The result is if the questionnaire is phrased to lead a responder to a conclusion then the response is bias because it is enjoined in the responders reasoning when answering the question. It is a dual processed answer made in the decision-making process and regardless of whether or not the responder is instructed specifically to use logical reasoning; the results indicate that the enjoining of enculturation is prevalent in decision-making and with affects the outcome.
Dube, C., Rotello, C.M., Heit, E. (2010). Assessing the belief bias effect with ROCs: It is a response bias effect. Psychological Review, 117 (3); 831-863. Doi:10.1037/a0019634
Evans, J. St. B.T., Barston, J.L. & Pollard, P., (1983). On the conflict between logic and belief in syllogistic reasoning. Memory & cognition 11, 295-306