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CONFLICT AND ITS IMPACT ON NEPALESE TOURISM

Updated on March 5, 2016

Central Department of Economics in the Partial Fulfillment of Requirement for the Master’s Degree in Economics

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

The kingdom of Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitudinal variation. The elevation of our country ranges from 60m above sea level to the highest point on earth, Mr. Everest at 8,8,48m all within a distance of 150m resulting into condition from sub-tropical to Arctic.

Nepal is a country of natural paradise in unique due to its peculiar topography, diverse climates and cultural heritage. It’s most unique exotic and remote destinations in the tourism map of the world are unquestionably a country deemed with countless natural wonders and exhilarating tourist products. The most spectacular mountains in the world, people of different races, religious, cultures and costumes. A wide variety of flora and fauna and a varied climate are the ornaments of the major source of attraction to the large and growing tourist’s world.

Nepal has become a centre of attraction and is being developed as a tourist destination due to its unique natural beauty. The rapid growth of population is further hampering the development efforts. We have a very few of possibilities for industrialization and limited scope for a situation development. In such a situation, we do have comparative advantage in the field of water resources and tourism. For the development of tourism we have natural as well as cultural products. The natural beauty of the Nepal and its rich cultural heritage have been the major sources of attraction to the large and growing number of tourists visiting Nepal from all over the world.

Nepal’s unique geographical setting and outstanding natural beauty has created and exceptional tourist attraction. That can be offered to a tourist for attraction, acquisition or consumption. Nepal has long experience in sustainable tourism particularly eco-tourism. So, it desires to develop this as a program in poverty alleviation of this country. It is the key strategy for economic growth leads village economy by generating income employment and industry. In fact, tourism is a powerful weapon to poverty alleviation as well as unemployment problems. Tourism in Nepal is to maximize the nations earning from tourism and an important element of the strategy is to encourage sightseeing visitors to stay longer in Nepal and to provide them with wider opportunities to spend on Nepalese products and services. Developing destinations outside the Kathmandu valley is seen to be an important element of the strategy. The tourism sector in Nepal is still small because it is founded upon the exceptional natural assets receipts. Planning in a proper way, tourism industry can establish itself as a major industry.

Rural tourism is a planned and balanced industry. Its dimension is very board. Benefits are shared by all in an equitable distribution pattern. Those who live in tourism regions are considered as participants in tourism activities. Village tourism in which the villagers are not left as creatures but always graded as superior beings of their own circumstances. Above all rural tourism must address innovation transfers of technology, economic development and the socio-cultural environment. Village tourism is the best tourism in all type of tourism.

Bandipur village has an attitude of 1,030m, and is situated in the MahabharatRange in Tanahun district of Gandaki zone. It is 143 km to the west of Kathmandu, 73 km to the south of Pokhara, 70 km to the north of Chitwan and 8 km from Dumre Bazar on the Prithivi Highway. Bandipur is situated on a hilltop above the highway town of Dumre Bazar.

Bandipur location in Tanahun district, southern corner of Gandaki zone is a sleepy old Newari village. It was the main link on the ancient trading route between Tibet and India and according to legend was once very prosperous. It is also a place of god-gifted natural assets, mountain and Himalaya scene, river basin, wildlife, favorable climate and others attraction which will be of great interest for the tourist.

Bandipur village has been described as a natural view tower, ended; one can enjoy a spectacular panorama of the entire AnnapurnaRange plus the peaks of Dhaulagiri, Manaslu and Langtang from there. A part from the stunning views of the Himalaya and the MarsyandiRiver, a visit to the town is an opportunity to get a close look at Newar cultural life. Bandipur village captivates the visitor with its cultural appeal and pristine scenery. This Newar town has maintained its age-old flavors and presents sightseens with a heady mix of history incredible views, temples, shrines, sacred caves on spoiled landscapes, innumerable festival and a Newari architecture that harks back to the Kathmandu valley of old-age. Tourist can climb through pristine on the historical trail at Dumre Bazar to a town that has hardly changed.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The achievement of economic progress is called development. But for the economic progress more and more foreign exchange is required. Lack of foreign exchange has obstacles in the way of development in individual few countries.

The through Nepal is economically poor country yet she is very rich in nature scene. Mountain and hills provide a lot of attraction, Mt.Everest the highest peak in the world is pride of Nepal. Flora and fauna, wild animals and varieties of birds are found here. People have different animals and varieties of birds are found here. People have different languages and cultures which are another attraction for tourists. It is unique apparent that Nepal has large potentials for tourists. Keeping in view the above facts, Nepal Tourism Board (NTB) has been paying proper attention development of tourism so that foreign exchange can be earned in large amount for meeting increasing requirement. Bandipur Social Development Committee (BSDC) has done a lot in promoting tourism in Nepal. The district of tourism has been developed as on important tourist analyze the recent trend of tourist arrival in Bandipur village.

Bandipur has a wide prospect for the development of tourism, but there are no macros or micro level study related to the tourism. Bandipur has all the necessary infrastructures to develop as a tourist destination. It is a well-accepted fact that Nepal has many tourist attractions like Bandipur. Nepal bears innumerable villages like Bandipur, Sirubari, Ghalegaun etc, which can be an exceptional tourist attraction. We need not to do anything for boosting these areas with tourism except managing the resources and introducing innovative transfer of technology. Most of the studies on tourism in Nepal are conducted in macro level, thus the recommendations are of generalized in nature. But we also need some specific type of recommendations in order to upgrade the tourism in our country. This is possible through a micro level study of the problem. Hence this research is based on micro level with a case study of Bandipur. This will be an attempt to investigate the issues relating to the village tourism promotion at macro level. Thus this study is proposed the improvement and problem identified regarding village tourism and its socio-economic impact on local level.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall objective of this study is to identify is to identify the prospects, problems and impact of tourism in Bandipur village. The specific objectives of the study are as follows:

v To assess the present situation of tourism in Bandipur village.

v To analyze the impact of tourism in Bandipur village.

v To examine the level of tourism awareness in local people and exhibit available facilities in relation with tourist flow in the study area.

v To recommend for the improvement of tourism in Bandipur village.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The development of tourism industry is important for economic development in Nepal. It opened the door of tourism in 1950. Nepal is economic condition is not good and sufficient. People are living at the margin of subsistence level. Nepal is facing many problems on the path of her economic development. Most of the people are engaged in agriculture. But our agriculture productivity is extremely low due to high land ratio. The production is still at subsistence level.

In Nepal, so many studies on tourism have been done. Almost all these studies indicate that the tourism industry is very important in Nepal because it plays a great role in earning foreign currency and it helps to support for the economic development in Nepal. But some of the studies on tourism are based on macro level and centralized on the country. That is why we are unable these studies to investigate into the promotion of tourism in different parts of our country as selected area there are so many tourist areas in Nepal.

This study is related with the promotion of tourism at the micro level in the selected area namely tourism in Bandipur village in Tanahun district. Through the transportation, communication, accommodation and other modern facilities are nit developed sufficiently but the economical importance of the area is increasing. Therefore the study is directed to analyze the tourist inflow and its prospects as well as socio-economic impact of tourism as the micro level will significant at present.

1.5 Limitation of the Study

Following limitation of the present study:

  • This is an academic work, as a researcher is a student who does not have previous research experience like this, thus there could be many shortcomings.
  • This study is based on the data available from the field visit of the study area.
  • This study is fully depends upon the field visit testing as well as the interviews data, response of the respondent of the study area.
  • It is not applicable to all of the villages in Nepal because of the characteristics of Bandipur, which may not be the same as of others.
  • The study is conducted within the given time frame and financial limitations.

1.6 Organisation of the Study

This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter is introduction of the study area. The second chapter is devoted to literature review. Third chapter is research methodology. Fourth chapter discuss about general review of tourism. Fifth chapter is data analysis and major findings and 6th chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Tourism perspectives

In the world, ‘Travel’ is as old as mankind and by natural human beings is fond of traveling. Human travel has started since nomadic times when they traveled and migrated for food and shelter due to natural compulsions (Tewari, 1994:1).

Prior to the advent of the industrial revolution, travel was primarily related to the trade, the desire for military conquest or the performance of group rites. It was principally the traders, in the early historical period, which blazed the trial by establishing national trade routes and communications, which later extended through out the region and finally to other continents. Thus, it was trade that first motivated travel in the real sense (Tewari, 1994:1). Later, the advent of modern means of transport and communication has uplifted tourism by facilitating and encouraging traveling. This developed form of traveling in modern terminology is known as ‘tourism’ today. National committee on Tourism, India defined it as, “The new phenomenon of traveling in per suit of leisure, culture and the quest for knowledge about alien lands connotes the concept of tourism. The growth of tourism is closely related to the ease and speed of travel, economic growth and political development”.

(Moahnty, 1992:43) Tourism gradually over the years as easier and faster means of travel became available. Mass tourism started in Europe only in late 19th century but today it is a worldwide reality. “Today tourism revolution is sweeping the globe, a revolution promising much and delivering a great deal. It has emerged as the most lucrative business of the world, having tremendous potentiality for earning foreign exchange, yielding tax revenue, promoting growth of ancillary industrially backward region through its various linkage effects (Sing, 1975). In concise form we can say that travel is rooted in the ancient past but tourism is a recent phenomenon of modern origin (Tewari, 1994:14).

Tourism has been defined in different ways by various authors and concerned organizations and yet, there is no universally accepted definition of Tourism. Herman Von Schullard (1910), the Austrian Economist gave the first definition of Tourism. He defined as the ‘sum total of operations, mainly of economic nature, which directly related to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or region.

The most widely used and popular definition of tourism is one prepared by the United Nations conference on International Travel and Tourism held in Rome in 1963. This definition was recommended by International Union of Official Travel Organizations (IUOTO) in 1908. Again, in 1993 the United Nations Statistical Commission adopted Rome definition of tourism in revised from prepared by World Tourism Organization (WTO) as a follow up to the Ottawa International conference on Travel and Tourism statistics, jointly organized by WTO and the Government of Canada in June 1991. In this definition WTO has developed a schematic breakdown of all Travelers. A traveler is defined as “any person on a trip between two or more countries or two or more localities within his/her country of usual residence” (WTO, Framework for collection and publication of Tourism Statistics, Madrid).

The true consciousness and the anxieties of human nature encouraged traveling for the new findings. Thus, “the origin of tourist industry can be traced to the earliest period of human habitation on the globe. Of course, there exists a difference between modern traveling and traveling during the early period. But it is the habit of traveling which has initiated the growth of this industry. Traveling in those far off days was a must for the survival and existence of early men. But with the advent of civilization and change in the human outlook, the meaning of traveling has been shifted from the necessity to the desire of taking marvelous adventures” (Ranjit, 1976:17).

World Tourism Organization has defined ‘tourist’ in precise terms as ‘Any person who travels to a country other than that in which he/she has his/her usual environment for a period of at least one night but not more than one year and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the country visited. This term includes people traveling for leisure, recreation and holidays; visiting friends and relatives; business and professional; health treatment; religion/pilgrimages and other purpose” (WTO, 1996:24).

Thus, tourism comprises “the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes” (WTO, Recommendation on Tourism Statistics).

According to Webster new international dictionary, 1975, tourism is “Traveling for Recreation”. Similarly the term tourism was first defined as the sum total of operations, mainly of economic nature which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or region. The function of tourism is to import currency from resources into country. Its impact is what tourist expenditure can do to the hotelkeepers.

Thomas Cook developed the first concept of modern tourism. ‘Thomas Cook’ father of travel 1841 started tourism where as the first steamship was invented in 1830 (CTEVT, 1997). He is respected as a father of modern tourism. The industrial revolution and mechanism increased the wealth and surplus time and developed the attitude of going because of which such tourism became organized and established institution.

According to Swiss professors Huziker and Krafts “Tourism is the totally of the relationship and phenomenon arising from the travel and stay of strangers, provided that stay does not imply the establishment of a permanent residence and is not connected with a remunerated activity” (Bhatia, 1995:34).

2.2 Present Scenario – Global Perspectives

Tourism has emerged as an industry which, according to World Tourism Organization, in 1998 generated approximately 74 million jobs in its direct and service oriented industries, such as airlines, hotels, travel services and publications (Eadington and Smith: 1994).

The World Trade Organization predicts that international tourism by the years 2000 and 2010 will involve 702 million and 1108 million visitors, respectively. This tourism will have significant economic and environmental implications worldwide (Nepal, 1997).

Madrid (1999) International tourism arrivals grew by a solid 2.4 % worldwide in 1998, despite fallout from Asia’s economic crisis, which depressed travel throughout the Pacific Rim countries.

According to preliminary results released by the World Tourism Organization, 625 million tourists visited a foreign country in 1998. Receipts from international tourism, excluding airfares, climbed 2 % to US$ 444.7 billion.

Arrivals to South Asia grew by 5% twice the world average to reach 5 million tourists, while receipts climbed 2.8% to US$ 4.4 billion. India, which accounts for nearly half the regional total, managed to maintain a growth rate on 1 % in arrivals by attracting numbers of European tourists. Iran achieved significant tourism growth of 21 % in terms of arrivals and 22 % in earning, although starting from a very low base. Sri Lanka also showed good tourism growth with an increasing of just over 4 % in arrivals and a jump of nearly 10 % in tourism receipts. The Maldives is becoming an increasingly important destination in the South Asia region with a strong increase in tourism of about 10 % last year. (Source: http.//www.cybrary.com.sg/pages-learning/wto2.htm)

Nearly twenty years ago the American futurologist Herman Kahn (1976) predicted that by the end of this century tourism would be one of the largest international industries in the world, it appears that he was correct. Already the international tourism and travel industry is four times as large as the international arms trades and twice as large as the trade in petroleum products. By 1990 tourism expenditure in the United States, including both domestic and overseas, was nearly twice as large as expenditure in all forms of education and was only surpassed by the health and medical services. (Suman Shrestha: 2059)

Rob Davidson and Robert Maitland (1997) has mentioned that from its early origins as an indulgence restricted to the rich and leisured classes, tourism has grown to become an inseparable part of modern life and an integral part of social, cultural and economic actively in western Europe, as in other parts of the developed and developing world. The European Union 1995 Green Paper on tourism remarked that.

More than a matter of habit or a heterogeneous set of economic activities, tourism has became, within less than a century, a determining factor in the life of millions of people. Tourism changes with the improvement in living and working conditions and is simultaneously an essential element of this improvement and a result of it. (Commission of EC, 1995)

2.3 Current Scenario (Nepalese perspectives)

Nepal’s economy is generating US$ 170 million annually and attracting just fewer than half a million foreign visitors 463646 in 2000 (MOCTCA2001). Tourism provides direct and indirect employment dollars and represents 15% of total export earning (NTB 2001). In this season, there is no doubt that expansion of tourism to villages will contribute more to the economic development for the country like Nepal.

Tourism plays an indeterminate role in Nepal’s economy. It has become a pillar for economic development in recent years. According to a story of World Tourism Organization WTO), one incoming tourist in a particular country provides direct and indirect employment to nine persons. The tourism sector accounts for about 19% of foreign currency earnings. On top of this, the sector pays for more than 33% of total revenues to the government.

Table No. 1: Tourist Arrivals (1998-2007)

Year

Total

Average length of stay

Number

Growth rate %

Index

1998

463684

9.9

7504

10.76

1999

491504

6.0

7954

12.28

2000

463646

-5.7

7504

11.88

2001

361237

-22.1

5846

11.93

2002

275468

-23.7

4458

7.92

2003

338132

22.7

5472

9.60

2004

385297

13.9

6236

13.51

2005

375398

-2.6

6075

9.09

2006

383926

2.3

6213

10.20

2007

526705

37.2

8524

11.96

Source: Nepal Tourism Statistics, 200

Figure No. 1: Tourist Arrivals (1998-2007)


Source: Nepal Tourism Statistics, 2007

Table No. 2: Tourist Arrivals by Purpose of Visit (1998-2007)

Year

Holiday

Pleasure

Trekking &

Mountaineering

Business

Pilgrimage

Official

Conv.

Conf.

Rafting

Others

Not Specified

Total

1998

261347

(56.4)

112644

(24.3)

24954

(5.4)

16164

(3.5)

22123

(4.8)

5181

(1.1)

-

21271

(4.6)

-

463684

(100.0)

1999

290862

(59.2)

107960

(22.0)

23813

(4.8)

19198

(3.9)

24132

(4.9)

5965

(1.2)

19574

(4.0)

491504

(100.0)

2000

255889

(55.2)

118780

(24.6)

29454

(6.4)

15801

(3.4)

20832

(4.5)

5599

(1.2)

17291

(3.7)

463646

(100.0)

2001

187022

(51.8)

100828

(27.9)

18528

(5.1)

13816

(3.8)

18727

(5.2)

0

(0.0)

22316

(6.2)

361237

(100.0)

2002

110143

(40.0)

59279

(21.5)

16990

(6.2)

12366

(4.5)

17783

(6.5)

0

(0.0)

58907

(21.4)

275468

(100.0)

2003

97904

(29.0)

65721

(19.4)

19387

(5.7)

21395

(6.3)

21967

(6.5)

0

(0.0)

111758

(33.1)

338132

(100.0)

2004

167262

(43.4)

69442

(18.0)

13948

(3.6)

45664

(11.9)

17088

(4.4)

0

(0.0)

71893

(18.7)

385297

(100.0)

2005

160259

(42.7)

61488

(16.4)

21992

(5.9)

47621

(12.7)

16859

(4.5)

0

(0.0)

67179

(17.9)

375398

(100.0)

2006

145802

(27.7)

66931

(12.7)

21066

(4.0)

59298

(11.3)

18063

(3.4)

0

(0.0)

72766

(13.8)

383926

(100.0)

2007

217815

(41.4)

101320

(19.2)

24487

(4.6)

52594

(10.0)

21678

(4.1)

8019

(1.5)

65

(0.0)

78579

(14.9)

22156

(4.2)

526705

(100)

Figure in parenthesis represent percentage of the total.

Source: Nepal Tourism Statistics, 2007

Figure No.2: Tourist Arrivals by Purpose of Visit 2007


Source: Nepal Tourism Statistics, 2007

Table No. 3: Foreign Exchange Earning From Tourism (1998/99-2007/08)

Year

Total Foreign Exchange Earning from Tourism (Rs. In million)

As% of Total Value of Merchandise Exports

As% of the total value of Exports of Goods & Non Factor Services

As% of total Foreign Exchange Earnings

As% of

GDP

1998/99

12167.8

34.1

18.5

15.9

3.6

1999/00

12073.9

24.2

13.0

8.8

3.2

2000/01’

11717.0

21.0

12.0

7.4

2.9

2001/02

8654.3

14.9

10.6

6.1

2.1

2002/03

11747.7

23.1

15.2

8.2

2.6

2003/04

18147.4

32.9

20.3

11.4

3.7

2004/05

10464.0

17.5

12.2

6.1

1.8

2005/06

9556.0

15.5

10.9

4.6

1.5

2006/07*

6176.0

14.9

9.8

4.4

0.9

2007/08

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Note: ’Date based on new format since Fiscal Year 2000/01

*First Eight Months.

Source: Ministry of Finance, Economic Survey FY2006/07

Table No. 4: Hotel Accommodation, 2007

Category

No. of Hotels

No. of Rooms

No. of Beds

Kathmandu

Five Star

Four Star

Three Star

Two Star

One Star

Non Star

8

2

12

30

29

264

1539

190

455

1223

725

3436

2897

362

940

2391

1495

6848

Sub-total

345

7568

14933

Our station

Five Star

Four Star

Three Star

Two Star

One Star

Non Star

1

-

5

6

12

250

200

-

231

205

194

4084

400

-

460

392

426

8070

Sub-total

274

4914

9748

Grand-total

619

12482

24681

Source: Nepal Tourism Statistics, 2007

2.4 Conceptual Study of Tourism

In fact rural tourism is not totally new concept. The rural tourism of the 1970s, 80s, 90s and 2000 is, however different in several ways while on pondering over rurality, it has been argued that the concept is connected with low population densities and open space, and with small scale settlement, generally of less than use (Rabi Jung Pandey: 2003)

A rural tourism product is anything that can offer to a tourist for attention, acquisition or consumption; it includes physical objects, services, personality’s places and ideas too. (Subash Nirola: 2003)

Dr. Surendra Bhakta Pradhananga who is recognized as ‘Father of Village Tourism’ and Discover of Scientific Tourism has defined village tourism as village tourism is a grass root level of tourism designated at its own Nepali village style, mobilized by Nepali people themselves; their skill and resources displayed as village life style and environment, involved by groups of village tourists, assigned by Nepali adult authorities positively within its balance of social and environmental function and strengthened the village and village economy. And he further defined that village tourism is a planned industry. Its dimension is very broad. Benefits are shared by all in an participants in the tourism activities. Village tourism in which the villagers are not left as creatures but always graded as superior in which the villages are not left as creatures but always graded as superior of their own circumstances.

According to Nandita Jain, the concept of village-based tourism needs to be focused on the few things as given below. Transit trekking route-scenery, comfortable.

Anil Aryal (2002) in his project report mentioned that village tourism means any forms of tourism that has a village of rural areas as destination. The involvement of local community and the minimization of negative, social, cultural and impact should be included. The village tourism stresses the necessity of the linkage of tourism with the community economy. Because of the recent development of a specific product called village tourism. Village tourism is understood as tourism to local villages providing home stay and cultural shows and local people get immediate benefits from tourism.

2.5 Literature Regarding Study Area

Renton de Alwis (1996) Bandipur is a sleeply old NewariVillage or (town) located seven kilometers off the main Kathmandu-Pokhara highway oa a winding District. The way to Bandipur is full of surprises and Bandipur itself is a treat. It has been a main link on the ancient trading route between India and Tibet and according to legend was once very prosperous. The old glory still remains as the main modern highway trace over looked Bandipur and took a more economical route. He further says that the pix account is not because he would like to see a thousand visitors there, but because this place needs to be cared for there may not be many like it left in Nepal. It is a treasure trove that needs to be looking after, with much care.

Traveller’s Nepal (March-April 2004) Bansdipur (pop.10, 000) is a hilltop town situation midway on the Kathmandu to Pokhara at an altitude of 1,000m overlooking the MarshyangdiRiver valley. In the early 1800s, the ordinary mountain village was transformed into a vibrant commercial centre on the Tibet-India trade route after Newar traders from Bhaktapur moved here. Bandipur offers Mountain View, artistic houses and pagoda temples. It has the largest cavern in the country, the Siddha Gupha, which is full of stalactites and stalagmites.

Nepal guidebook (NTB 2006) located on a 1,000m rides in Tanahun district some 140km from Ktm, Bandipur’s hallmark is its beautiful scenery. At the eastern part of the town is the pagoda-roofed Bindabasini temple which houses goddess Durga, Bandipur’s guardian deity. The rich wooden carvings and detailed brass worked that adom the temple are replicas of those found in the many old pagoda structures of the Ktm valley. The other important temples and shrines in the vicinity include the Mahalaxmi temple with its exquisite woodwork and the Khadge Devi temple which comes alive once a year during the Dashain Phuipati festival.

Lonely Plannet Nepal (4th edition) Overlooking Dumre, Bandipur is a beautiful Newari hilltop town just South of the Kathmandu-Pokhara (prithivi) highway. Before the construction of the road, Bandipur was a major Newari trading centre, and its baaars still hint of those days. Stone-paved roads pasc between temples and multistoreyed houses, and along the way there are excellent views of the Annapurnas and Machhapuchhre. It takes about two hours of walk up to Bandipur from Dumre. It takes about 45 minutes to drive.

Bandipur is currently being pushed as a tourist destination, but it severely hampered by lack of a descent road and limited accommodation.

The Bandipur mountain resort is a new place with descent facilities or there are a number of basic local lodges.

Amod Bhattarai (2004) Bandipur, also renowned as a Mini-Heaven; falls in Tanahun district of Gandaki zone of mid-western Nepal. It lies 3,300meters above the sea level and is a beautiful mountain peak. Bandipur village covers and area of 4,562 hectors land in average and is 135 kms for from Kathmandu. Previously, Bnadipur was the headquarter of district but the transferring of headquarter into Damauli, became a curse for the village. We can find varieties in caste and culture here. Mostly, Newars, Barhmans, Gurungs, Sunwars, etc are found in the village. They live in a combined community. There have their own rites and rituals.

We can observe different HimalayanPeaks from Bandipur like; Machhapuchre Himal, Ganesh Himal, Dhaulagiri Himal, etc. the visitors would find Bandipur very interesting and exciting on their visit. All Bandipur people expect to develop their village as a best and fascinating tourism field to hire more and more tourists and are actively participating from its growth. Its natural beauty and beautiful panorama sin’s everyone’s heart.

Ujol Sherchan (2003) Bandipur an ancient Newari mountain town is a treasure waiting to be discovered by travelers. Untouched by modernization and laced with an abundance of ancient houses, temples, of great significance and historical architecture, the medieval-era town boasts festivals all year around besides a plethora of cultural offerings. Neighboring Magar, Gurung, Chetri, Bahun, Damai and Sharki villages all contribute to the cultural diversity of the region. The hill top town not only overlooks the incredible expanse of the Marshyangdi river valley but also offers a breathtalking sweep of the Himalayan range from Langtang in the east of Dhaulagiri in the west. From nearly hilltops one can see as far as Manakamana and Gorkha to the east, the great Chitwan plains to the south among others. Once a bustling commercial centre along the trade-route linking Tibet with British India, the place is now ready to emerge from the historical view to welcome travelers from near and far. There is resort here plus about 25 hotels and paying guesthouses. While the Siddha Gupha (the largest caves in the country) and Patali Dwar (a.k.a. the gate way of heaven) are must-see, this place also offers endless hiking possibilities in the surrounding hill. It is recommended that travelers stay here about three days (or more) to take it all in.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

A descriptive as well as exploratory research design has been applied to analyze the present situation, problems and prospect of village tourism in the study area.

3.2 Rational of the selection of the Study area

Bandipur is a beautiful mountain village having basic infrastructures to promote as a popular tourist destination in national and international arena. The rational of the selection of the study area is to promote tourism industry with a new concept of tourism and benefit all the people in this area. Bandipur has all the necessary infrastructures to develop as a tourist destination. Thus to develop and benefit the population of this area is the rationality of the selection of the study area.

3.3 Study area

Bandipur is located in Tanahun district, southern corner of Gandaki zone. It is situated south of the Prithivi Highway midway between Kathmandu and Pokhara, near the point where the Marshyandi River takes a sharp turn eastward on its way to join the Trishuli River at Mugling. Situated on a saddle on a saddle, Bandipur (1000mtrs) is strategically located about 140 km West of Kathmandu and 74 km East of Pokhara. It is 7 km South up from a popular pick up point at Dumre Bazar on Prithivi Highway.

3.3.1 Demographic Situation

3.3.1.1 Settlement Pattern

Ethno-historically, Bandipur was a Magar settlement prior to the mass-migration of Newars from the valley of Kathmandu. They are supposed to be settled in Bandipur during late eighteen century or early nineteen century from the city of Bhaktapur. Even now, basically, it’s a Newar settlement accompanied by other Hindu caste and some tribal groups. It occupies the area of 5.274 km and the total household is 2344 with average of 4.85.

3.3.1.2 Population Composition

Total population of Bandipur; 11415 (Male: 5490, Female: 5925)

(Source: Bandipur VDC, Tanahun)

3.3.1.3 Ethnic Composition

Though Newars dominated in the main bazaar of Bandipur, but there are other inhabitant ethnic groups of Bandipur, which are the follow:

Chettri: 1126 Muslim: 70 Baniya: 21

Sanyasi: 191 Tharu: 25 Sherpa: 16

Teli: 28 Rai: 18 Dura: 8

Tahkali: 20 Marwadi: 11 Newar: 1569

Brahaman(Terai): 11 Majhi: 5 Gharti/Bhujel: 407

Sonar: 5 Magar: 2182 Kumal: 21

Gurung: 2637 Sarki: 551 Tamang: 62

Kami: 791 Rajbansi: 14 Damai/Dholi: 280

Thakuri: 57 Gaine: 21 Bhote: 6

Brahaman(hill): 1171 Brahmu/barame: 7 Unidentified caste: 14

Unidentified Dalit: 60 Other: 10

(Source: DDC Tanahun)

3.3.1.4 Spatial Distribution of Education and Health Services

Education and health services available in this area are as follows:

Primary Schools: 19 Lower Secondary School: 2

Secondary Schools: 2 College: 2

Hospital: 1

Bandipur is quite ahead in education, health and community development comparing to the other Nepalese village. Notre Dame School established in 1984 under Japanese, French and USA assistance has been producing highly skilled and efficient students in the past decades but now this school has only lower secondary level. During the Maoist period it has been affected. In past it play not only an important role in uplifting the standards of education but also has made it easily accessible to poorest of the communities by providing full scholarships.

3.3.1.5 Literacy Situation of the Study Area

Literacy status of Bandipur is presented bellow:

Illiterate: Male: 793 Female: 963

Literate:

3.4 Universe and Sampling

In the study area judgmental sampling has been adopted. The general information as well as some key informants such as tourists, hotels owners, local leaders, intellectuals etc. was also selected purposively.

The total households have been the universe of the study and 50 respondents were selected through random selected. Similarly, the tourist respondent was selected through chance sampling. Finally, all hotels were dealt to get in-depth information about tourists and other related information. In the study judgmental sampling was adopted. The general information as well as some key informants such as tourists, hotels owners, local leaders, intellectuals etc. was selected purposively.

3.5 Nature and Sources of Data

The study was conducted mainly on the basis of primary data and the relevant secondary data was also applied.

3.6 Primary Data Collection Technique

The source of primary data /information was obtained from fieldwork, using through structure and non-structure questionnaire and interview with key informants, applying some additional questions where needed.

3.6.1 Questionnaire

Structure questionnaire as well as un-structure questionnaire was used to collect data. Household heads of the study area, tourists and hotel-owners are the source of information for questionnaire.

3.6.2 Interview with Key Informants

Key information for interview was selected from different kind of status, such as local leaders, teachers, intellectuals etc. Basically, information like current tourism situation, supply components, accommodation and other facilities impact upon society, culture, environment, problem and prospect of community based village tourism and etc. were collected through key informants interview.

3.7 Secondary Data Collection Techniques

Secondary data was obtained through sources like of Ministry of Tourism (MOT), Department of Tourism, Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Nepal Tourism Board (NTB), Village Development Community (VDC), Central Library of Tribhuvan University, etc.

3.8 Data Analysis

After the collection of data, it was tabulated and interpreted by using frequency table, figure, sample and descriptive statistical methods such as frequently distribution, percentage etc.

CHAPTER IV

GENERAL REVIEW OF TOURISM

4.1 Tourism in Nepal

A total of 5, 26,705 tourists visited Nepal during 2007 representing an increase of 37.2% over the previous year. Tourist’s arrivals to Nepal for this year were recorded as follow: 3, 04,225 (57.7%) from Asia, 1, 40,630 (26.7%) from Western Europe 37,182 (7.1%) from North America, 16,634 (3.2%) from Eastern Europe, 14,506 (2.8%) from Australia and Pacific, 6,486 (1.2%) from South & Central America and 1,350 (0.3%) from Africa.

The highest number of arrivals for 2007 was from India, comprising 96,010 (18.2%) of the total. This percentage however represents Indian tourists arriving in Nepal by air only.

The majority of tourists from overseas countries visiting Nepal were from UK 32,367 (6.1%), USA 29,783 (5.7%), P.R. of China 27,339 (5.2%), Japan 27,058 (5.1%), Germany 21,323 (4.0%) and France 20,250 (3.8%) respectively. The arrival of overseas tourists recorded an increase of 48.4% in 2007 comparison to 2006.

Altogether the largest number of tourists visited Nepal for recreational purposes 2, 17,815 (41.4%), adventure tourists posted the highest average length of stay in the country. The average length of stay was recorded as 11.96 days.

The total number of tourist hotels recorded in 2007 was 619 of which 345 were based in Kathmandu valley and the rest in out stations like Pokhara, Chitwan, Nepalguhj, Birjang, Dang, Bhairahawa and Palpa. The total numbers of rooms and beds available in these hotels were 12,482 and 24,681 respectively. Kathmandu accounted for 7,568 rooms with s14,933 beds where hotels outside the valley accounted for 4,914 rooms with 9,748 beds.

Tourism in Nepal has no proper record before the democracy of 1951. During the Rana regime, Nepal was not open for tourists and hence there was no proper development and proper record to tourism except a few inscriptions that tell as about the historic of some monks from the friendly countries of north and south. Though after the unification of Nepal at the end of the 18th century by Prithivi Narayan Shah few westerners dared to venture into this country as the route demanded then to walk westerners dared to venture into this country as the route demanded then to walk through the malarial jungles of the southern Terai. However, it was in 1816 that the western world got to hear about the existence of Nepal although the information was limited to Kathmandu valley.

Although, Nepal followed an open door policy after the advent of democracy in 1951, it was the conquest of Mt.Everest on may 29th May 1953 by the late Mt. Tening Norgay and Mt. Edmund Hillary that focused the worlds attraction in Nepal, subsequently a tourism, industry began to develop in Nepal. Nepal was further expanding the diplomatic relations with the other organization such as UNESCO, WHO, FAO etc. After getting the membership of the UNO in 1955, Nepal gradually becomes known to the outside world.

In second may 1956 the coronation of King Mahendra was regarded as the first great landmark in development of tourism and this incident attracted many tourists into Nepal. The first group tourist consisted of 12 Americans and 2 Brazillians organized under the pioneer body of sir. Thomas Cook and sons arrived at Kathmandu in the autumn of 1956.

The department of Tourism was established in 1966 under the Tourism development Act 1964. even though tourism administration machinery has existed since 1956 and also established tourist development board in 1957 and a tourist information centre was established in 1959, Nepal further succeeded to get the membership of different international tourism development institutations such as International Union of Official Travel Organization (IUOTO), South Asian Travel Commission (SATC), The Pacific Area Travel Association (PATA) and the American Society of Travel agents (ASTA). At first the national flag carrier Nepal Airlines Corporation (NAC) came into being 1958. A few hotels were built in the late 1960s.

Systematic tourism in Nepal started from 1966 with the establishment of a few hotels. The industry was further strengthened and established after the formation of tourism master plan in 1972, which gave emphasis tourism market development sightseeing, trekking, eco-tourism and recreational and adventure tourism.

Nepal adopted the planned policies in Tourism with the initiation of five-year economic plans since 1956. Due to political instability before 1951, no special policies and plans on tourism could be formulated. The experience of international world taught Nepal to perform the development activities through planning consequently five year plan started Nepal in 1956. Even though Tourism industry in Nepal became fully run up since the Nepal Tourism Master Plan (NTMP) formulated in 1972 at national level. NTMP projected programs came up two phases as the first phase 1972 to 1975 for four years and the second 1976 to 1980 for the five years.

Although there was no specific provision for tourism development during the First Five Year Plan (1956-1961) the plan gave adequate emphasis to build requisite infrastructure like road water, electricity, construction of airport etc. Tourism Development Board and Tourism Information Centre were established in 1957 and 1959 respectively. Hotel survey and tourist guide training were conducted during this plan period.

Having realized the importance of tourism as a major source of foreign exchange earnings, emphasis was given to promote in Nepal and abroad and develop travel agencies, hotels during the Second Three Year Plan (1962-1965). The most important achievement in this plan for tourism was the company Act 1964 to regulate and develop tourism sector. This plan had allocated Rs. 2 million for outlay in tourism sector. The new tourist resorts were explored and constructed in Pokhara, Lumbini, Kakani and Nagarkot. The TribhuvanInternationalAirport was under construction and the emphasis given to improve it with modern facilities.

4.2 Village Tourism in Nepal

The history of Village Tourism in Nepal is not long. Nepal introduced a program of Village tourism aiming at promoting country’s tourism industry in 2052 B.S for the first time. Though the promotion of tourism in the sense started more or less from the beginning of 1960. But concrete steps to promote and intensify tourism development activities in a more scientific and ordinate way were made when a high level “Nepal Tourism Development Committee” was formed in 1970 on the financial and technical assistance of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany. The work of the committee culminated in the publication of Nepal Tourism Master Plan in 1972 when has been the basic for all future activities in the field of tourism development in Nepal.

In 2nd may 1956, the coronation of King Mahendra was regared as the first great landmark in development of tourism and its incident attracted many tourist into Nepal, though Nepal has already expanded the diplomatic relation with worlds famous organization such as UNESCO, FAO, WHO etc. After getting the membership of the UNO in 1955, gradually Nepal becomes known to the outside world. The first group tours consisted of 12 Americans and 2 Brazilian organized under the pioneer body of sir Thomas cook and his son arrived at Kathmandu in Autumn of 1956.

In the context of Nepal the concept of village tourism is a new mountain tourism product. The main point that emerges to develop rural base tourism industry in Nepal as a major weakness in mountain tourism has been the poor quality and management of its supply components. Second the urban areas are extremely becoming polluted and congested and are lacking a peaceful and pleasant environment, third rural community are attracted to the tourism industry and forth is alternative income resources etc.

Tourism in a village is a relatively new concept as well as must be an integral part of the whole tourism scenario and also to be looked upon as supplementing the whole effort, which is of interest not only to those in the tourism industry but also the developed professions policy makers and local communities as a potentially uncreative mechanism for conserving the natural resource base. The objective of village tourism despite often ambiguous is to attract tourists to natural areas and use to revenues for local conservation and economic activities.

Eleven model tourist villages were purposed to be spread out among the various geographical divisions of the country. Only a few tourist village have came up including Sirubari Syangja district, Ghale Gaun at Lamjung district, which has been particing as community based village tourism like Sirubari as taken 13 households as sampled since 20 Baishakh 2058 and also Khasur and Bhujung villages are being practice as model tourist village at Lamjung district. Likewise, Thulo Persel and Kartic deuarali gaon in Kavre, Ghandruk and Siklesh in Kaski, Parbat, Mustang, Manang, Dang, Pyuthan, Ilam and Taplejung.

Nevertheless, Nepal tourism board has adopted a policy of expanding village tourism all over the kingdom, and plans to develop village tourism as an industry for poverty alleviation. Likewise, Nepal Village Resort Private Limited has been devoting to improve rural base tourism since 1997. which at first take as sample Sirubari village in Syangja district. This institute takes as sample to introduce village tourism at Solukhumbu, Dahnkuta, Lamjung and Therathum. The next private NGO SNV/NEPAL has been involved to develop sustainable tourism in the rural areas, like Ilam and Taplejung.

4.3 Village Tourism in Bandipur

Though Bandipur village has not been declared by Government of Nepal as the model tourist village like Sirubari and Ghaleghaun. It has lots of potentiality and features that can easily attract tourists. History has it that Bandipur was originally Magar settlements who were later displaced to the outlying areas by Newars. After king Prithivi Narayan Shah, the unifier of the nation, took over the valley, Newars migrated to Bandipur and started operating their business. During the middle of the 20th century, Bandipur was the main hub for goods between India and the valley and it prospered. The settlement was completely abandoned in 2025 B.S. (1970) when the headquarters was shifted to Damauli.

Bandipur VDC first came into light during the Visit Year 1998. Now, Bandipur is not frequented by business tourist, it ahs seen a handful of domestic and international tourist till end of 1980’s. But almost all of them had visited the village for education centre (private or governmental organizations) to record tourist activities, it is impossible to put forward numerical data concerning tourism. Till date, Bandipur does not posses any governmental accommodation facilities to cater for the tourists visiting Bandipur.

However, the role of Bandipur Samajik Bikash Samiti has been always crucial in the path of tourism development in Bandipur. The Samiti established in 2049 B.S. by the Bandipur has performed various development activities in their birthplace. Bandipur Mahotsav 2060, milestone in the tourism development in Bandipur, was one of the unforgettable work perform by the Samiti Bandipur Mahotsav 2060 was organized on 15, 16,17 november 2003 in the initiation of the Bandipur Tourism Committee, Bandipur Samajik Bikash Samiti and NTB. The program was declared as one of the most successful Mahotsav in Nepal, welcoming about 21000-22000 domestic tourist in three days.

Now days the concept of “Home Stay” has being practiced in the village. Presently there are more than 20 houses offering home stay services to the tourists with an emphasis an interacting and living with the host community. It offers the visitors for an opportunity to experience the village culture, customs and daily life of the host household and the community. The concept of home stay was introduced to ensure their tourism benefits flow across wider community.

CHAPTER V

DATA ANALTSIS AND MAJOR FINDINGS

In this chapter, the collected data is analyzed for fulfillment of the objectives. The analysis is mainly based on questionnaires collection from villagers, tourists (domestic and international), key informants and hotel owner.

5.1 Present Information about Tourist and Tourism

This chapter presents the results of the survey of tourists. The result is mainly based on questionnaires collected from 20 tourists who visited Bandipur during field visit.

5.1.1 Distribution of Tourist by Nationality

Since the field visit were conducted in the June/July, which generally known as off-season in tourism sector, researcher couldn’t meet tourist in large number. 20 tourists were surveyed during the field visit. The distribution pattern of tourist by nationality is shown in below table.

Table No.5: Distribution of Tourist by Nationality

S.N.

Countries

Number

Percentage

A

Domestic

11

55

B

International

9

1

German

3

15

2

U.K

2

10

3

India

2

10

4

Japan

2

10

Total

20

100

Source: Field survey, 2008

Though Bandipur attracts tourists from different countries in the past, during the field visits researcher meet tourists basically from four countries. It is delighting to see more domestic tourists during field visit. The respondents selected for the study consists 55 percent from Nepal i.e. domestic tourists, 45 percent from abroad (15 percent from German, 10 percent each from U.K, India and Japan).

5.1.2 Age Differences of Tourists

The different ages of tourists visit Bandipur, which is presented in below table:

Table No. 6: Age Differences of Tourists

Age group

Number

Percentage

Below 20 years

3

15

21-50 years

12

60

Above 50 years

5

25

Total

20

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

Table reveals that 15 percent of the respondents are below 20 years of age, while 60 percent are within the age group 21 to 50 years. Similarly, 25 percent of respondents are of above 50 years.

Different ages of tourist’s visit Bandipur is shown in figure below.

Figure No. 3: Age Difference of Tourists

Source: Field visit, 2008

5.1.3 Distribution by Purpose

The purpose of visit in Bandipur may be classified into pleasure and relax, adventure, pilgrimage, study, business assignment, project assignment, to gain health and village people and culture. The distribution of tourists by purpose of visit may be seen from below table.

Table No. 7: Distribution by purpose of visit

Purpose of Visit

Total Number

Percentage (%)

Pleasure and Relax

8

40

Adventure

1

5

Pilgrimage

Study

1

5

Business assignment

Project assignment

To gain health

Village people and culture

10

50

Total

20

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that majority of tourist’s i.e. 50%, visit Bandipur for the purpose of Village people. Which means to see and enjoy the traditional culture, culture heritage folk songs, dance like Ghatu nach, Lakhe nach, Chutka nach etc of village people. Similarly, 40% visit Bandipur for the purpose of pleasure and relax and five percent each for adventure and study.

Distribution of tourists by purpose of visit is shown in the below figure

Figure No. 4: Distribution by purpose


Source: Field visit, 2008

5.1.4 Occupational Differences of Tourists

The sample consists of tourist of different occupations. Below table shows the occupational differences of tourists.

Table No. 8: Occupational Differences of Tourists

Occupation

Number

Percentage (%)

Students

6

30

Services

8

40

Business

4

20

Others

2

10

Total

20

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

The table shows that about 40% of respondent were service holder, 30% were students, 20% of respondent were engaged in business and 10% in different farming, social work, volunteers etc.

5.1.5 Length of Stay

The length of stay is a factor in tourism development in order to develop tourism industry. It is necessary not only to increase the number of tourists in flow but also to increase their length of stay. The length of stay varies from tourist to tourist. Generally, it depends on time, money and desire of tourists.

The duration of stay by tourists visiting Bandipur may be seen from below table.

Table No. 9: Length of Stay by tourists

Duration

Number

Percentage (%)

Day Excursion

-

-

One Night/2 Days

12

60

2 Night/4 Days

4

20

3 Night/4 Days

4

20

4 Night/5 Days (above)

-

-

Total

20

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that about 60 percent of tourists stayed for one-night/two days, while 20 percent each stayed for two night/three days and three night/four days. Since there is no one who stayed more than four nights or more than that it is necessary to encourage the tourist lengthen their stay.

Length of stay tourists in Bandipur shown in below figure

Figure No. 5: Length of Stay


Source: Field visit, 2008

5.1.6 Favorable Season to Visit Bandipur According to Tourist

Seasonal plays vital role in in-flow of tourists in any area. Through field visit was conducted during summer season respondents shows their willingness to visit Bandipur in various seasons. Which is shown in below table.

Table No. 10: Favorable Seasons to Visit Bandipur

Seasons

Number

Percentage (%)

Summer

3

15

Spring

2

10

Autumn

9

45

Winter

6

30

Total

20

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that the largest number of tourist likes to visit Bandipur in autumn season i.e 45%, through they are visiting in summer because of various seasons. According to them they can enjoy pleasant weather and panorama scenic beauty of Himalayas during that season. Similarly, 30 percent shows their interest to visit Bandipur during winter season, 15 percent in summer and only 10 percent in spring.

5.1.7 Expenditure Pattern of Tourists

The expenditure pattern of tourists deeply influence to the tourism sector of any area. It will be beneficial to encourage tourists to spend more during their short stay rather than to make their stay long. The distribution of experience is shown in below table.

Table No. 11: Expenditure Pattern of Tourists (Per Day/Per Tourist)

Amount (US$)

Lodging Expenditure

Food Expenditure

Lodging Exp.

Percent (%)

Food Exp.

Percent (%)

Below 10

12

60

10

50

11-20

6

30

7

35

21-30

2

10

3

15

31-40

41-50

Above 50

Total

20

100

20

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that about 60 percent visiting Bandipur spend less than US$ 10 on lodging. Basically these are the charge made by the home stay and small lodges owner, 30 percent spend 11-20 US$ and only 10 percent spending between 21-30 US$ per day.

Similarly, 50 percent spend less than US$ 10 on food, 35 percent between 11-20 and only 15 percent between 21-30.

And also during field visit it is noticed that only 1-5 US$ is spend in other activities such as local handicrafts, local products etc.

Thus the table shows that there is a very low economic activity that makes tourist spends more money during their stay. Since it is necessary to make tourist spend more in order to benefit local people, the need of proper tourism planning has become essential to create more activities for more spending by tourists.

5.1.8 Most Appreciated Features of Bandipur

The inflow of tourism of any places highly depends upon the special features possess by that place. Most appreciate features of Bandipur according to the respondents are shown in below table.

Table No. 12: Most Appreciated of Bandipur

Features

Number

Percent (%)

Accommodation Facilities

2

10

Homely Environment

3

15

Cultural & Traditional Facilities

3

15

Natural Scenic Beauty

2

10

All of the Above mention

10

50

Total

20

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

Above table reveals that most of the respondent i.e. 50 percent says that all the listed features in the table attracted them. Similarly, 10 percent like the accommodation facilities available in the village and 10 percent each like the environment provided by the villages and the village and the cultural, scenic traditional facilities like ghatu nach, bishket jatra, chutka nach, phulpati, etc. Finally, 10 percent like natural scenic beauty of Bandipur.

The mostly appreciated features of Bandipur is also shown in below figure

Figure No. 6: Mostly Appreciated Features of Bandipur


Source: Field visit, 2008

5.1.9 Current Situation of Infrastructure Facilities in Bandipur according

To The Tourists

Modern Facilities and services is one of the major components that are necessary to attract the tourists. Bandipur is rich and possess all the major facilities and services to develop it as village tourism, only it needs proper management and planning. Current existing facilities in Bandipur and Tourists responses about it are shown below in the table.

Table No. 13: Current Situation of Infrastructure Facilities in Bandipur according to the Tourists

S No

Facilities

Excellent

%

Good

%

Don’t know

%

Bad

%

Very Bad

%

1

Water Supply

4

20

12

60

4

20

2

Communication

12

60

8

40

3

Electricity

13

65

7

35

4

Road

6

30

14

70

5

Health Service

12

60

8

40

6

Solid waste collection & disposable system

20

100

7

Cleanliness of place

2

10

12

60

8

Security

4

20

12

60

9

Drainage system

8

40

10

Street lighting

12

60

6

3

15

11

Hotels

17

85

4

3

15

12

Restaurants

15

75

12

5

25

13

Toilets

14

70

5

6

30

14

Service

16

80

4

20

15

Conservation and promotion of Natural & Cultural assets

11

55

9

45

16

Behavior of local people

16

80

4

20

Source: Field visit, 2008

Excellent = When a particular facility is over supply.

Good = When a particular facility is abundant.

Don’t know = When a respondents don’t have any idea about a particular facility.

Bad = When a particular facility is in short and difficult to use.

Very Bad = When a particular facility is scarce and very difficult to use.

The above table shows that respondents are satisfied with overall situation of the infrastructure available in the study area. More over they are satisfied with the behavior of the local people and also communication available in the village because communication tools like telephone fax, internet, etc are easily available there.

However, when it comes to street lighting (15%), hotels (15%), restaurants (25%), toilets (30%) and service (20%) respondents replied bad and suggest that it should be upgrade for the betterment of the tourism. Moreover, sanitation, toilets and solid waste disposal system should be upgraded and systematized as it may create problems for sustainable village tourism development in future.

5.1.10: Perception towards the Future Pattern of Tourism Development in Bandipur According to the Tourists

During the field visit when asked to domestic tourists about the prospect of tourism in Bandipur, more than 90% said yes only 10% reply don’t know and more than 80% reply that they will prefer and visit the village again. It implies that it has huge domestic tourism potential.

Similarly, 80 percent foreign tourists see excellent prospect while 20 percent says don’t know and more than 60 percent reply they will prefer to visit Bandipur again. Also more than 65% reply that they will refer to visit Bandipur to their acquaintances after their visit. Thus we can see the prospect of attracting foreign tourists too. But it also implies that there are lots of things to be done concerning tourism development in Bandipur.

Response of tourists for futurist’s pattern of tourism development in Bandipur is shown in below table.

Table No. 14: Futuristic Pattern of Tourism Development in Bandipur

S.No

Future Pattern

Preferences

Absolutely

Desired

%

Desired

%

Not

Desired

%

1

To benefit rich and upper class only

-

-

-

-

20

100

2

To benefit poor and lower class only

4

20

14

70

2

10

3

To benefit all poor and lower class community

16

80

4

20

-

-

4

To benefit only those professional

5

20

7

35

8

40

5

To benefit only those who can invest

-

-

5

25

15

75

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that all the tourists are much concerned about the futuristic way of tourism development pattern in Bandipur. They want a fair distribution of tourism income among the locals. Therefore, 80% of them have chosen to benefit all segment of village having emphasis upon the poor and lower class community. They are against the kind of tourism development, which benefit rich and upper class only.

5.2 Present Situation of Hotels in Bandipur

Hotel industry plays a dominant role in tourism development. Tourist inflow increase in Bandipur after the road was constructed from Dumre Bazaar to Bandipur in 1974. After that there was a felt need for hotels and lodges. With the increase in tourist activities in Bandipur, the number of hotels and paying guesthouses has grown significantly.

5.2.1 Profile of Hotel Owner

Of the 28 accommodations in Bandipur, all are operated in respondent’s own premises by their own resources. And majority of the owner belongs to the Newar group.

5.2.1.1 Accommodation Capacity of Hotels and Guesthouses in Bandipur

Accommodation capacity of hotels varies between different classes of hotels. It also depends upon the investment made for its establishment. The available room and beds in Bandipur are given below in table.

Table No. 15: Distribution of Accommodation Capacity

S.No

Type of

Accommodation

No

%

Room and Beds

Total

Single

Double

Bed

Dormitory

Bed

Room

Bed

1

Paying Guest Houses

13

46.42

5

19

41

-

-

24

41

2

Lodge

14

50

14

10

20

6

24

30

58

3

Resort

1

3.57

-

12

24

-

-

12

24

Total

28

100

19

41

85

6

24

76

123

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that 46.42% of the total accommodations available in Bandipur are of low cast and easily accessible paying guest houses, which has 24 rooms and 41 beds. These are located in the market area and run by the locals providing homely environment. Most of the tourist used to stay here in order to enjoy the local culture and traditional way of living and also to learn Nepali language.

Similarly, 50% of the total accommodations available in Bandipur are medium standard lodges, which are operated giving emphasis to the tourists who are much concerned with village life and tradition. Especially Bandipur lodge has been decored with the old equipments that hold the historical value, like khukuri, kheka, old gun etc. Total lodges in Bandipur have 30 rooms and 58 beds.

The table also shows that there is only one resort that can meet standard of hotel or resort, which has 12 rooms and 24 beds.

Thus, the table implores that if we are planning to develop Bandipur as a village based tourism area then we don’t have to invest on modern hotels and resorts paying guest accommodations provided by the each and every household will be sufficient. But we should move with more planned manner in order to make maximum benefit in sustainable way.

5.2.1.2. Accommodation Price

The accommodation price varies between different classes of hotels. But accommodation changes are very similar among the hotels. The accommodation charge of single bedroom is Rs. 100-200 per night while double bed room is Rs. 200-300 and dormitory room is Rs. 400 per night.

Similarly, accommodation changes of guesthouses are also similar. They changes Rs. 250-300 for one night. Within that they will provide both lodging and fooding. It will be cheaper for domestic tourists. There is one standard resort in Bandipur, which changes US $ 15-28 for European and other tourists, IC 550-1000 for Indians, and NC 700-1300 for Nepali for lodging and fooding according to the need of guest. These prices may change in case of off-season and other cases.

5.2.1.3 Investment Pattern of Hotels

The investment pattern of hotels has been grouped in three categories; Below Rs. 80,000, Rs. 80,000 to Rs. 3, 00000 and above Rs. 3, 00000. The variation in investment is shown in the table below.

Table No. 16: Investment Pattern of Hotels

Types of Hotels

Investment (in Rs.)

Number of Hotels

Playing Guest House

Below Rs. 80,000

25

Lodge

Rs. 80,000 to Rs. 3,00000

14

Resort

Above Rs. 3,00000

1

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that home stay guesthouse in Bandipur have investment of Rs. 80,000. Out of 46.42% percent of total accommodations in Bandipur fall in this investment group. Investment between Rs. 80,000 to Rs. 300000 consists 50% of the total hotels while above 300000 consists 3.57 percent.

All the hotels in Bandipur are self-financed by the owners. This indicates that the investment pattern of hotels in Bandipur is depending upon the level of individual investment capacity.

Investment Pattern of Hotels in Bandipur is shown on below figure

Figure No. 7: Investment Pattern of Hotels

Source: Field visit, 2008

5.2.1.4 Classification of Hotels/Guest house and Resorts According to Caste

Group

Since Bandipur is typical Newari village, Newars has dominant in all the activities including the hotel sector. All together there is 28 hotels, home stay and resort and most of the hotels and guest houses are run by the local Newars. Which has been shown in below table.

Table No. 17: Classification of Hotels/Guest house and Resorts According to Caste Group

S No.

Caste group

Number of Hotel/ Home stay/Resort owner

Percent (%)

1

Newars

21

75

2

Brahamins

1

3.57

3

Chhetries

-

4

Occupational caste

2

7.14

5

Others

4

14.29

Total

28

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

Above table shows that Newars has dominant in hotel occupation. Most of the big and famous hotels i.e 75% of hotels and resort including ‘Bandipur Mountain Resort’ of Santa kumar Shrestha, ‘Bandipur Guest House’ Pattahr Pradhan and Home stay of Bhairab Kumar Sulp are run by Newars. Only 3.57% of Brahamins is engaged in this profession and 14.29% of the occupational caste like Sunam, Pariar etc. Similarly, other caste like Rana, Gurung, Lama and Tahakili consists 14.29%.

Which shows that proper planning and its implementation is needed in order to bring other castes including occupational caste and marginal group in the tourism sector so that they can equally participate in the tourism activities and also can share the benefit from it. It is necessary to make aware other caste like Magar, Gurung, Sunam, Pariar etc about the tourism sector and its benefit in order to boost the tourism in Bandipur.

Classification of Hotels/Guesthouse and Resorts According to Caste Group is also shown in the figure.

Figure No. 8: Classification of Hotels/Guesthouse and Resorts According to Caste Group

Source: Field visit, 2008

5.2.1.5 Income Variation of Hotels

In general, income variation among in Bandipur is common. The income variation of hotels has been grouped in three categories: below Rs. 50,000, between Rs. 50000 to Rs.100000 and above Rs.100000 per annum. The income generated by hotels in Bandipur is shown in table below.

Table No. 18: Income Variation of Hotels

Types of Hotels

Annual Income

Number of Hotels

Paying Guest Hotels

Below Rs. 50,000

13

Lodges

(i) Below Rs. 50,000

6

(ii) Between Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 1,00000

8

Resort

Above Rs. 1,00000

1

Total

28

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that all the paying guesthouses income is below 50,000 and small hotels or lodges has also annually income less than fifty thousand. But the hotels like Bandipur Guest House and Old Inn has income between 50,000 to 100000. Only one resort i.e Bandipur Mountain Resort has income above Rs. 100000.

This indicates that there is direct relationship between the standard of hotel, tourist inflow and annual income of the hotels.

5.2.1.6 Food Price Charge

It is very cheap food price in Bandipur comparing with other tourist area. In general the charge for breakfast is Rs.20-25 for domestic and Rs.40-60 for international tourists. Rs.40-80 for lunch and dinner each for Nepali and Rs.100-150 for internationals. The breakfast, lunch and dinner rates at the resort are US $ 3, 4, 5 & 7 respectively.

5.2.1.7 Sources of Goods for the Hotels

During field visit when it is asked from where do you get necessities for hotel then most of the hotel owners reply that they supplied mainly from local markets. All the necessities like vegetables, meat, eggs and fruits are brought from local markets and only when it comes to large amount and the goods which are not available in the local market then they will purchase from Dumre, Narayanghat, Pokhara and even Kathmandu.

5.2.1.8 Employment Generated by Hotels

Comparatively very few people are employed in the tourism sector in Bandipur. This is because of decrease inflow rate of tourist in the village and the worse situation of the country. The employment provided by the hotels in Bandipur shown below table.

Table No. 19: Employment Generated by Hotels

Types of Hotel

Skilled employees

Unskilled employees

Paying Guest house

-

10

Lodge

8

5

Resort

10

3

Total

18

18

Source: Field visit, 2008

The employment has been grouped as skill and unskilled. The above table shows that Paying Guesthouse that covers 46.42% of accommodation in Bandipur has employed only 10 employees that are also unskilled. Similarly, a lodge, which covers 50%, has provided employment to only 13 persons. The biggest hotelBandipurMountain Resort provided employment to 13 persons. All these employees are from Bandipur.

This shows that most of the hotels in Bandipur are small in terms of employment and serving a commendable task of reducing the local unemployment rate. Similarly, during field visit it also noticed that most of the hotel’s owner himself/herself and their family members are engaging in hotel task rather than employing other. This is because of low inflow of tourist in the village.

5.2.1.9 Impacts of Tourism according to Hotel Owner

During the field visit, the hotel owners were also asked about the kind of changes they noticed with the increase in the number of tourists visiting Bandipur. Their view of changes can be seen from the table below.

Table No. 20: Impacts of Tourism according to Hotel Owner

S No.

Impact description

Positive Effect Household %

Negative Effect Household %

Total Household %

1

Opportunity of employment and services

25

89.28

3

10.71

28

100

2

Opportunity of local business

24

85.71

4

14.28

28

100

3

Opportunity of farming animals, vegetable and fruits

28

100

-

-

28

100

4

Opportunity in the establishment of traditional cottage industry

25

89.28

3

10.71

28

100

5

Conservation and promotion of natural heritage

28

100

-

-

28

100

6

Community welfare by the development of infract rue

28

100

-

-

28

100

7

Growth of cleanliness because of proper disposal of sewerage

13

46.42

15

52.57

28

100

8

Price rise in services and commodities

12

42.85

16

57.14

28

100

9

Growth in moral and social assumption and values

26

100

2

7.14

28

100

10

Awareness in community sentiment

28

28

-

28

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

The table shows that through there is low inflow of tourist since few years due to various reasons the hotel owner are much optimistic towards this sector. They do agree that overall impact of tourism is positive in their village. In the reply of almost all impact questions they answered that it has possess positive effect in villagers except in the caste of growth of cleanliness and price rise in services and commodities. For that 53.57 denied that cleanliness would increase because they argue sewerage will increase with the number of tourists. Similarly, 57.14 think that price will rise in services and commodities after high tourist’s inflow. But, they support very highly about the opportunity of farming animals, vegetables and fruits (100), conservation and promotion of natural and cultural heritage (100), community welfare by the development of infrastructure (100) and awareness in community sentiment due to the tourism.

5.2.1.10 Response of Hotel Owners Regarding Current Infrastructure Facilities Available in Bandipur

As mentioned earlier, the development of infrastructure is very important for tourism development. The hotels in Bandipur were asked to evaluate the different infrastructure facilities. The survey results are presented below table.

Table No. 21: Response of Hotel Owners Regarding Current Infrastructure Facilities Available in Bandipur condition of facilities

S. No.

Facilities

Excellent

%

Good

%

Don’t know

%

Bad

%

Very bad

%

1

Water supply

-

-

24

85.71

-

-

4

14.28

-

-

2

Communication

-

-

28

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

Electricity

28

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

Transport

-

-

28

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

Health service

-

-

25

89.28

-

-

3

10.71

-

-

6

Solid waste collection and disposal system

-

-

-

-

-

-

28

100

-

-

7

Cleanliness of place

-

-

24

85.71

-

-

4

14.28

-

-

8

Security/ Peace

28

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

Drainage system

-

-

-

-

-

-

28

-

-

-

10

Street lighting

-

22

71.42

-

-

8

28.57

-

-

11

Hotels

-

-

28

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

Restaurants

-

-

28

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

13

Toilets

-

-

28

89.28

-

--

3

10.71

-

-

14

Service

-

-

28

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

15

Conservation and promotion of Natural & cultural assets

-

-

28

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

Behavior of local people

28

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Source: Field visit, 2008

The table reveals that hotel owners are satisfied with the infrastructure facilities that are available in Bandipur. No body says ‘very bad’ to the existing infrastructure. However some of them are not satisfied with the water supply (14.28), health service (10.71), cleanliness of the place (14.28), street lighting (28.57) and toilets (10.71). Finally, all of them are not satisfied with the solid waste collection and disposal system of the village.

There are not much problem with other facilities, such as communication, conservation and promotion of natural and cultural assets, services, hotels, restaurants and street lighting etc.

It also reveals that all the hotels owners are completing satisfied with the electricity facility, security/peace and finally behavior of local people.

5.2.1.11 Perception Towards the future Pattern of Tourism Development in Bandipur According to the Hotel Owners

During the field visit when hotel owners are asked about the prospects of tourism development in Bandipur 90% hotel owners see excellent and only 1o% of them have unsure prediction.

Through tourism activities are limited around the market area within few active people. Most of the local residents and hotel owners are aware of the fact that the future pattern of tourism development in Bandipur should be oriented towards the betterment of the all irrespective of caste, creed and class having emphasis upon the poor and lower class.

The futuristic patterns of tourism development in Bandipur are shown in table 22:

Table No. 22: Futuristic Pattern of Tourism Development

S. No.

Future Pattern

Preferences

Absolutely desired

%

Desired

%

Not Desired

%

1

To benefit rich & upper class only

-

-

-

-

26

28

2

To benefit poor & lower class only

8

28.57

20

71.42

-

-

3

To benefit all poor & lower class community

28

100

-

-

-

-

4

To benefit only those who are professional

15

53.57

10

35.71

3

10.71

5

To benefit only those who can invest

6

21.42

4

14.28

18

64.28

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that all the hotel owners are aware with the situation of the poor villagers thus they put their emphasis upon the rational of equal and justifiable distribution of revenue generated from tourism in Bandipur among all the villagers. That is why all the respondents (1000 replied against the sole benefit of rich and upper classes. Likewise, about 65% against the sole benefit only for those who can invest. Similarly, they have also given preferences (53.57) to those competent, efficient and professional who can contribute their abilities for the development of tourism in Bandipur.

5.3 Survey of Local Residents

During the field visit, 60 respondents were asked about the present situation and the future prospects of tourism in Bandipur. And also analyzed the direct and indirect impacts of tourism in villagers. Since development of tourism in Bandipur has brought many changes in the lives of local residents it is necessary to interact with local residents about tourism.

5.3.1 Classification of Households According to the Caste Group

The respondents are from all caste and creeds and the questionnaires have covered all the upper, middle and lower classes of the society as shown in below table.

Table No. 23: Classification of Households According to the Caste Group

S. No.

Caste Group

No. of households

Percent (%)

1

Brahamans

8

13.33

2

Chhetries

8

13.33

3

Baishyas

19

31.66

4

Sudras

25

41.66

Total

60

100.00

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that survey has been done including all the Hindu caste groups. In the respondents i.e 60 occupational or so-called lower caste including Kami, Pariar, Sarki etc are 41.66% and dominant group like Thakali, Magar,Gurung, Newar respondent 31.66% and the so-called upper class represents 27%.

The classification of households according to the caste group is also shown in below table.

Figure No. 9: Classification of Households According to the Caste Group


Source: Field visit, 2008

5.3.2 Classification of respondents by Profession

The respondents are engaged in different profession for the livelihood like business and trade, agriculture, services and other activities. Generally, Newars are found engaged in trade and business and the caste like Bramhans, Chetries engaged in service and agriculture. The classification of profession is shown in the below table.

Table No.24: Classification by Profession

S. No.

Profession

No. of Households

Percent (%)

1

Agriculture

30

50

2

Trade & Business

14

23.33

3

Service

13

21.66

4

Others

3

5

Total

60

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that 50% of the respondents depend in agriculture as the main source of income, which is considerably lower than the national average of 84%. Similarly, 23.33% are making their living in the profession of trade and business. Likewise, 21.66% are dependent on the income of services rendered to educational, governmental and private institutions and 5% i.e 3 households depend on wage earning and pottering activities. The classification of profession is also shown in the figure below.

Figure No. 10: Classification of Respondents by Profession


Source: Field visit, 2008

5.3.3 Number of Local People Directly Involved in Tourism

Since the in flow of tourists has decreased during few years due to the worse situation of the country, employment for the local people has also been readily decreased in Bandipur.

Though the local people are engaged in tourism directly in Bandipur, it is very little number comparing with the employment provided by other tourism area. Which is shown in the below table.

Table No. 25: Number of Local People Directly Involved in Tourism

Types of Hotels

Number of Hotel

Directly Involved

Total

Proprietor

Skilled employee

Unskilled employee

Playing Guesthouse

13

13

-

10

23

Lodges

14

14

8

5

27

Resort

1

1

10

3

14

Total

28

28

18

18

64

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that there are altogether 64 local people directly involved in tourism industry through hotel industry. The table shows that paying guesthouse has given employment to 23 local people. Likewise, lodges have been given 27 local are hotel proprietor, 18 are skill employer in hotel and 18 unskilled.

Beside this, there are 14 local people who are working as the local guide for tourists. Altogether we can say that the tourism industry in Bandipur has provided employment directly to 78 local people.

Thus tourism has an important role to create employment opportunity to local people in Bandipur and it can create more opportunity in future if tourism inflow increased in country as well as in Bandipur.

5.3.4 Local People Indirectly Involved in Tourism

Not only direct employment but also local people of Bandipur are engaged in indirect employment in tourism industry. Local residents of Bandipur, like farmers, youngsters, porters and others are getting benefits from tourism in Bandipur. Farmers of Bandipur have got an opportunity to sell their farm products to the hotels as well as to the tourists. They are also getting reasonable price of their products due to the tourism industry. Indirectly from tourism the most benefited local people are the farmers because they have no worry in searching market foe selling their products. Porters have also got opportunity to earn their livelihood by serving the luggages of tourists.

Youngsters of Bandipur are engaging indirectly in tourism by providing their services to tourists as guide and care taker. Thus, tourism is an important industry in Bandipur and it is providing benefits to local people directly and indirectly.

5.3.5 Impact of Tourism Development According to the Local Respondents

During the field visit, the respondents were asked about the kind of changes they noticed with the increase in the number of tourists visiting Bandipur. Their view of changes can be seen from the table.

Table No.26: Impact of Tourism Development According to the Local Respondents

S. No

Impact Description

Positive Effect

Negative Effect

Total

Household

%

Household

%

House

hold

%

1

Employment opportunity

55

91.66

5

8.33

60

100

2

Business opportunity

56

93.33

4

6.66

60

100

3

Animal husbandry, horticulture & farming opportunity

56

93.33

4

6.66

60

100

4

Development of cottage industry

45

75

15

25

60

100

5

Conservation & promotion of natural & cultural assets

58

96.66

2

3.33

60

100

6

Development of infrastructure

55

91.66

5

8.33

60

100

7

Proper disposal of sewerage & cleanliness

40

66.66

20

3.33

60

100

8

Price rise in services & commodities

15

25

45

75

60

100

9

Increase in moral & social values

45

75

15

25

60

1001

10

Community awareness

45

75

15

25

60

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that local residents of Bandipur accept that overall impact of tourism is positive 96.66% of the total respondents agreed that conservation and promotion of natural and cultural assets has been increased. Similarly, their view towards the impact on employment opportunity, local business opportunity, animal husbandry, horticulture and vegetable farming opportunity, development of infrastructure is also positive. More than 90% in above points agree that tourism industry will play positive role. More than 60% agree that tourism has positive impact on development of cottage industries, proper disposal of sewerage and cleanliness, increase in moral and social values and community awareness. Only 75% agree that it has negative effect on increase in price rise services and commodities. Thus, the above discussion clearly shows that tourism has brought more positive impact than the negative to the people of Bandipur.

5.3.6 Especial Products of Bandipur According to the Local Respondents

When local respondents were asked about the products of Bandipur then they proudly explain the scenic beauty of Himalaya like Mt.Dhaulagiri, Mt.Annapurna, Mt.Machhapuchhre, Mt.Gorkha, etc and also different Mountains, Sunrise, Sunset and River Basin and also their rich culture, colorful festivals, historical mountains and many others. Finally when they are asked about the especial products of Bandipur then more than 50 (833.33) reply Bandipur orange, slate and sere culture. Similarly, when it was asked that to whom do you say tourist, then 55% reply that they call tourist only man with white skin where as 45% reply all the visitors including domestic and Indian.

5.3.7 Perception Towards the future pattern of Tourism Development in Bandipur According to the Local Residents

The locals had expectation from the tourism. Out of 60 households, 50 households (83.33%) see excellent tourism prospect while the remaining 10 households (16.67) responded as goods. Similarly, during field visit households were also asked about their perception towards the future pattern of tourism and it was found that most of the local residents are aware of the fact that the future pattern of tourism development in Bandipur should be oriented towards the betterment of the all irrespective of caste, creed and class having emphasis upon the poor and lower class. This is shown in the table below.

Table No. 27: Future pattern of Tourism Development in Bandipur

S. No.

Future Pattern

Preferences

Absolutely Desired

%

Desired

%

Not Desired

%

1

To benefit rich & upper class only

-

-

-

-

60

100

2

To benefit poor & lower class only

5

8.33

20

33.33

35

58.33

3

To benefit all poor & lower class community

55

91.66

5

8.33

-

-

4

To benefit only those who are competent, efficient & professional

5

8.33

15

25

40

66.66

5

To benefit only those who can invest

-

-

5

8.33

55

91.66

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that all the respondents were against the notice of benefiting rich and upper class only. Similarly, 91.66% of them were also not favoring the betterment of these people who can invest. All of the respondents favored (91.66% absolutely desired and 8.33% desired) the future pattern of tourism development to benefit all irrespective of caste, creed and class.

5.4 Survey of Key Informants

During field visit various people like teacher, VDC secretary, priest, businessman etc who are closely interlinked with the village but not directly involved in the tourism sector were interviewed about the present situation of tourism in village as a key informants through the questionnaire. 20 key informants were asked to fill the questionnaire including VDC secretary Mr. Nanda Bahadur Adhikari, Chairman of Nepal Chamber of commerce Mr. Mangal Prasad Shrestha, Priest of Notre Dame School Father Alan Pinto, Chairman of Bandipur Samajik Samiti Mr. Ghanshyam Shrestha, officer of Sere culture Dev. Mr. Gahn Bahadur Thapa. Most of the informants reply they see the bright future of tourism in Bandipur. They also see the future of both domestic and international tourism in Bandipur.

5.4.1 Classification by Profession

Key informants were from different field like working as a teacher, businessman, priest, service etc. which is shown in below table.

Table No. 28: Classification by Profession

S. No.

Profession

Number of key informants

Percent (%)

1

Teacher

8

40

2

Services

8

40

3

Business

3

15

4

Priest

1

5

Total

20

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

The table shows that most of the key informants are involved in teaching and government or private offices in Bandipur for a long time and knew Bandipur from very close. Among total informants 80% are engaged in other occupation. Similarly, 15% are engaged in business and one informant as a priest i.e (5%).

5.4.2 Prime Attractions of Bandipur According to Informants

During the survey key informants were asked about the prime attraction of Bandipur which can attract the tourists. Most of them give more preference to the scenic beauty of Himalayas, mountain, sunrise and sightseeing to monuments, market area etc. Which can be seen from below table.

Table No. 29: Prime Attractions of Bandipur According to Informants

S. No.

Products Description

Preferences of Nepalese

Excellent

%

Good

%

Bad

%

1

Sightseeing of monuments, market area & tribal villages

4

20

16

80

-

-

2

Scenic beauty of Himalayas, river basin

20

100

-

-

-

-

3

Adventure of trekking, paragliding

12

60

8

40

-

-

4

Bird watching

-

-

18

90

2

10

5

Wildlife viewing

-

-

5

25

15

75

6

Colorful festivals

5

25

15

75

-

-

7

Quite and peaceful place, gaining health

15

75

5

25

-

-

8

Local people’s hospitality

15

75

5

25

-

-

9

Cultural tourism

16

80

4

20

-

-

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that scenic beauty seen from Bandipur is one of the valuable ornaments of Bandipur. All of the respondents (100%) agree and admired this and also suggest that it will be better to make viewpoint and local cultural tourism supported by 80% of informants (75%) each says that the local percent hospitality and peaceful place for relaxing and gaining health is excellent. Sightseeing to monuments, market area tribal villages is supported by 80% saying good and 20% saying excellent. Nobody says bad except for wildlife viewing and bird watching. Thus, it is proved that Bandipur has such prime attractions like sightseeing, beautiful Himalayas scene, adventure of Para-gliding, colorful festival, peaceful place, local people’s hospitality and cultural tourism which is enough to attract the tourist, only thing needed is proper planning and its implementation by including local people.

5.4.3 Responses of Key-Informants Regarding Current Infrastructure Facilities Available in Bandipur

As mention earlier modern facilities and services is one of major components that are necessary to attract tourists. During field visit key-informants were asked about the current infrastructure facilities available in Bandipur and their response are shown in below table.

Table 30: Current Situation of Infrastructure Facilities in Bandipur According to the Key Informants

S.No

Facilities

Excellent

%

Good

%

Don’t

Know

%

Bad

%

Very

Bad

%

1

Water supply

3

15

10

50

-

-

7

35

-

-

2

Communication

15

75

5

25

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

Electricity

14

70

6

30

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

Road

3

15

17

85

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

Health service

-

-

15

75

-

-

5

25

-

-

6

Solid waste collection & disposable system

-

-

5

25

-

-

15

75

-

-

7

Cleanliness of place

6

30

14

70

-

-

-

-

-

-

Security

10

50

10

50

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

Drainage system

-

-

8

40

-

-

12

60

-

-

10

Street lighting

-

-

12

60

-

-

8

40

-

-

11

Hotels

3

15

17

85

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

Restaurants

5

25

15

75

-

-

-

-

-

-

13

Toilets

-

-

14

70

-

-

6

30

-

-

14

Services

4

20

16

80

-

-

-

-

-

-

15

Conservation & promotion of Natural & cultural assets

9

45

11

55

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

Behavior of local people

16

80

4

20

-

-

-

-

-

-

Source: Field visit, 2008

Excellent = When a particular facility is over supply.

Good = When a particular facility is abundant.

Don’t know = When a respondents don’t have any idea about a particular facility.

Bad = When a particular facility is in short and difficult to use.

Very Bad = When a particular facility is scarce and very difficult to use.

The above table shows that the infrastructure facilities that are very bad or bad perceived by key-informants are water supply, health service, solid waste collection and disposal system, drainage system, lighting and toilets. However, they agree that other facilities, such as communication, electricity, cleanliness of place, conservation and promotion of natural and cultural assets and behavior of local people are good and some event excellent.

5.4.4 Impact of Tourism Development According to the Key-Informants

During the field visit, the key-informants were asked about the kind of changes they noticed with the increase in the number of tourists visiting Bandipur. Their view of changes can be seen from the table below.

Table No. 31: Impact of Tourism Development According to the Local Respondents

S. No.

Impact Description

Positive Effect

Negative Effect

Total

Informants

%

Informants

%

Informants

%

1

Employment opportunity

20

100

-

-

20

100

2

Business opportunity

20

100

-

-

20

100

3

Animal husbandry, horticulture & vegetable farming opportunity

18

90

2

10

20

100

4

Development of cottage industry

20

100

-

-

20

100

5

Conservation & promotion of natural & cultural assets

18

90

2

10

20

100

6

Development of infrastructure

20

100

-

-

20

100

7

Proper disposal of sewerage and cleanliness

12

60

8

40

20

100

8

Price rise in services & commodities

5

25

15

75

20

100

9

Increase in moral & social values

15

75

5

25

20

100

10

Community awareness

20

100

-

-

20

100

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that key informants accept that overall impact of tourism is positive. 90% of the total respondents agree that conservation and promotion of natural and cultural assets has been increased. Moreover all of them agree that the impact on employment opportunity, local business opportunity, animal husbandry, horticulture and vegetable farming opportunity, development of infrastructure is positive. Only in the case of proper disposal of sewerage and cleanliness and price rise in services and commodities considerable number of informants gives negative response.

5.4.5 Perception towards the Future Pattern of Tourism Development in Bandipur According to the Key-Informants

During field v is it key informants were also asked about their perception towards the future pattern of tourism and it was found that most of them are aware of the fact that the future pattern of tourism development in Bandipur should be oriented towards the betterment of the all irrespective of caste, creed and class having emphasis upon the poor and lower class. This is shown in table below.

Table No. 32: Futuristic Pattern of Tourism Development in Bandipur According to Key-Informants

S. NO.

Future Pattern

Preferences

Absolutely Desired

%

Desired

%

Not Desired

%

1

To benefit rich & upper class only

-

-

-

-

20

100

2

To benefit poor & lower class only

10

50

10

50

-

-

3

To benefit all poor and lower class community

20

100

-

-

-

-

4

To benefit only those who are competent, efficient & professional

-

-

10

50

10

50

5

To benefit only those who can invest

-

-

5

25

15

57

Source: Field visit, 2008

The above table shows that all the key-informants were against the notion of benefiting rich and upper class only. Similarly, 57% of them were also not favoring the betterment of those people who can invest. All of the respondents favored (100%) the future pattern of tourism development to benefit all irrespective of caste, creed and class.

5.4.6 Awareness of Local People of Tourism According to Key Informants

During field visit when it was asked that are the local people aware of tourism then 8(40%) of them answered yes, whereas 12(60%) reply that only residents of market area and its surrounding are quite familiar of tourism industry, besides that people are still ignorant about it.

Similarly they also added that only residents around market area called all the visitors’ tourists including domestic and international like Indians. Otherwise, villagers called tourists only to them who have white skin.

This shows that villagers of Bandipur still need awareness program about tourist and tourism industry and also about its advantages and disadvantages.

5.5 Prospects of Tourism Development in Bandipur

Since Bandipur is easily accessible, through a well paved road of half an hour, rich in natural scenic beauty of Himalayas like Mt. Ganesh, Mt. Machhapuchhre and Mt. Dhoulagiri etc. and also forest and hills. Sightseeing to monuments, market area and tribal villages, colorful festivals like Bisket Jatra, Janai Purnima, Gai Jatra, Dashain, Tihar etc. added beauty of Bandipur. Similarly, quite and peaceful environment and local people’s hospitality makes it mini-heaven.

Thus we can say that Bandipur remains largely an unexplored area with a maximum potential for promotion of tourism, which have been discussed in detail in following lines.

5.5.1 Natural Assets

Bandipur, a nature paradise is naturally gifted area having outstanding scenic beauty and others nature gifted assets which are not the result of human efforts.

5.5.1.1 Scenic Beauty

Bandipur is a naturally gifted area having outstanding scenic beauty and graceful charm. Scenic beauty exerts a strong fascination for the tourists. Some scenic beauty of Bandipur has given below.

(i) Spectacular Himalayan Scenery

One of the major attractions of Bandipur is that we can observe breathtaking views of the Himalayas ramparts. Local people claim that we can observe Himalayans scene more beautifully than any other places like Nagarkot and Pokhara. Mt. Dhaulagri (8167 m), Mt. Annapurna (8091m), Mt. Langtang (7245m), Mt. Machhapuchhre (6997m), Mt. Ganesh (7555m), Mt. Jugal, etc. are clearly visualized from Bandipur. Bandipur is the place from where we can observe longest mountain range at a glance.

(ii) View of Beautiful Mountains/Hills

Another attraction of Bandipur is the panorama scene of BeautifulMountainsMahabaratRange is the finest attraction for tourist, which is clearly seen from Bandipur. Similarly, the view of Chhimkeswori (one of the highest hill of Nepal) in the South-East of Bandipur and Mukundeswori hill in the West of bandipur bazaar has equally contributed in the beauty and attraction of Bandipur.

(iii) River Basin

The scenic beauty of river-basins (Marshyangdi river and Chundi river) is extremely pleasurable and breathtaking to watch from the hillocks of Bandipur.

(iv) Jungles

Raniban, Grungche Danda and Mukundeswori Danda of Bandipur are the green jungles, which also attracts tourists.

(v) Sun-rise and Sun-set

In the morning sun-rise from the eastern mountain is the main attraction whereas in the evening sun-set become another attraction in Bandipur. Sun-rise and sun-set can be seen clearly from Tundikhel and Gurungche hill.

5.5.1.2 Pleasant and favorable Climate

Climate is a basic primary element for the development of tourism in any tourist destination. Bandipur has very pleasant and healthier climate through-out the year. Most of the months in a year have bright sun-shine and cloudless blue and azure sky. There is pleasant summer and warm winter to provide satisfaction with fresh and healthy climate.

5.5.1.3 Wild-Life

Panther, Bear, Butterflies (about 22 different type), Birds (about 60 including kande-bhyakur) etc. are the prime attraction for tourists in Bandipur.

5.5.1.4 Caves

Bandipur’s hillsides are also well known for their caves, which carry religious significance for the locals. Patali Dwar (gate way of hell) cave and Siddha cave has many marvelous time-stone formatted status and idols which provide extra little bit of excitement to all visitors. Patali dwar five hours walk from Bandipur bazaar has religious importance villagers called it as a way to go inside th earth i.e Patal. Siddha cave which is also biggest cave in Asia, is two hours walk from Bandipur or five minute walk from Bimalnagar bazaar near Dumre bazaar in the highway area.

5.5.1.5 Rocky Slopes

Tandrang-Tundrung, Tundekhel and Chunpahara rocky slopes are also the attraction of visitors in Bandipur. All of these are used for rock-climbing activities.

5.5.2 Man Made Assets

Bandipur is also rich in terms of human products as follows.

5.5.2.1 Historical Monuments

(a) Main Bazaar

Main Bazaar is mainly influenced by the Newars who had migrated from the valley during the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. The houses in main bazaar have built on double-lane and the main street and pavement is paved by the slate stones.

(b) Mukundeswori

An important tribal power place in Bandipur is that of Mukundeswori, a top a high summit at the end of two hour walk from main bazaar. The shrine here is festooned with numerous bells and trients and it is especially revered by Gurung tribes. There are some historical knives and swords apparently placed here by victorious warriors of the past.

(c) The Gadhi (Thani Mai Temple)

North-east of Bandipur, on a hilltop, stands a fort said to have been established by Sen dynasty Mukund Sen. The view of fort’s trenches are still visible. The view of mountain from this place is fully worth.

(d) Khadagdevi

This two stories can be missed because it looks like an ordinary dwelling. However, it is the most revered shrine in Bandipur. It has a sacred sword which is said to be the gift of divinity-Shiva to king Mukund Sen. The sword left by king to an old women on his way to becoming an assetic, is revered as a representation of goddess Durga who symbolizes power. The sword is wrapped in cloth and it is said that whoever views it invites instant death.

(e) Bindebashini Temple

Situated in the heart of the main bazaar, this pagoda style temple displays Newar craftsmanship at its best. The temple is rich in wood cravings on its struts and windows while lintels and torana are done in detailed brasswork.

(f) Mahalaxmi Temple

This temple is also built in pagoda, it is dedicated to the goddess of wealth, Laxmi. The structure also displays exquisites wood work in its struts, door-ways and arches.

Besides above there are many other historical monuments in Bandipur to attract tourists. They are NarayanTemple, MahadevTemple, Tin-dhara (natural water spring), Marty’s Memorial Park, Ramkot, etc.

5.5.2.2 Colorful Festivals

There are numerous festivals in Bandipur. Here are some festivals which is very specific than other parts of Nepal.

(a) Bagh Jatra

(b) Gai Jatra

(c) Khadga Jatra

(d) Bisket Jatra

(e) Lakhe Nach

(f) Doko Nach

(g) Ghatu Nach

(h) Rodi Nach

(i) Chudka Nach

(j) Ropain Jatra

Beside these, festivals of national character like Krishnatami, Fagu Purnima, Shivaratri, Dashain, Tihar and etc. are also widely observed by the locals of Bandipur.

5.5.2.3 Traditional Ceremonies

Different type of traditional rites and rituals may be of great interest mainly for the foreign tourist as given below:

(a) Childhood Ceremony: Birth, Naming, Feeding.

(b) Adulthood Ceremony: Bratabandh, Gufa, Bel-Bibah.

(c) Marriage Ceremony.

(d) Old-age Ceremony: Janku, Chaurasi puja.

(e) Death Ceremony (Rituals)

All of these ceremonies are extremely private in nature. So, the locals may not be ready to let foreigners to watch and photograph the entire ceremonies. But it may be interesting for those foreigners, who may be astonished by seeing such type of totally new and culturally shocking experience for them.

Time is changing. Therefore, it will be useful for the locals to widen the tourists activities by allowing them to see and photograph such ceremonies.

5.5.2.4 Tribal Villages

The Magar and Gurung tribal villages of Bandipur are also may be of great interest for visitors. Their living style, settlement pattern, culture etc. are totally different from others.

5.5.2.5 Caste Group

Settlement pattern, culture, economic and other activities of different cast group in Bandipur also attract tourist to observe them very closely. The following caste groups are found in Bandipur.

(a) Cobbler : Tanning and sewing activities (leather)

(b) Black-smith : Making tools and untencils from iron

(c) Gold-smith : Making gold and silver items (jewellery)

(d) Newar : Trade and business, Pottery, Weaving etc.

(e) Minstrels : making living by singing and playing sarangi (6 string

musical instrument)

(f) Tailors : Sewing clothes and playing musical instrument

i.e. Damaha, Narsing, Tyamca, Jhyali, Sahanai and

Murali etc.

(g) Bramhans : The priests workshipping various temples.

(h) Chhetries : The warriors.

5.5.2.6 Specific Economic Activities

(a) Silk Farming

(b) Livestock (Goats) Farming

(c) Slate Mine

Thus, we can see that Bandipur has a lot of things to attract the tourists.

5.6 Available Facilities with Regards to the Infrastructure in Tourism Development

in Bandipur

Bandipur is endowed with basic amenities which are essential for the development of tourism. It is not too unlucky type of villagers as most of the villagers in Nepal. Although the state of development and available facilities are not so encouraging for the overall development of tourism. Anyway, available infrastructural facilities in Bandipur are listed below:

5.6.1 Transportation facilities

Transportation is the key factor for the development of tourism. Transportation facilities make it possible to travel from one place to another. The means of transportation decides the volume of tourist.

5.6.1.1 Road

Situated on a saddle, Bandipur (1000m) is strategically located about 140 km west of Kathmandu and 74 km east of Pokhara. It is 7 km south-up from a popular pick-up point at Dumre Bazaar on Prithivi Highway.

From Dumre to Bandipur the road is graveled. The various means of transportation like car, taxi, motor-cycle, bus, jeep etc are available on hire to travel from Kathmandu, Pokhara, Narayanghat, and Dumre only. But travel agencies have provided very comfortable coach for tourist visiting Bandipur.

5.6.1.2 The Foot-Trail

Likewise, the foot-trail from Dumre to Bandipur is another attraction for the tourists.

5.6.1.3 The Helipads

At present, there are three helipad facilities in Bandipur.

5.6.2 Accommodation Facility

Accommodation is an important aspect of tourism industry. It is a comprehensive term and includes all the facilities used for the sojourn of a traveler. Such as, hotels, motels, lodges, bungalows, paying guesthouses etc.

Different categories of accommodation are available in Bandipur, which may be divided into 3 categories according to the facilities and price charged. They are Resort, Hotels and Paying guest Houses. Bandipur can accommodate about 123 guests per night in all categories of accommodation. The highest accommodation capacity is in the Hotels, followed by paying guest houses and resort.

5.6.3 Catering Facility

Every lodge has restaurant facility in Bandipur. But these hotels are paying guest houses commonly offer Nepalese and Tibetan dishes. Food like meat, fish, fruits and cold-drinks are easily available in these hotels. Anyway, modern restaurant facilities in Bandipur can be found only in one place Bandipur Mountain Resort which is very popular.

5.6.4 Security

Security is an essential factor for tourists. Nobody wants to go and stay there, where security is lacking. Condition of insecurity created by robbers, thieves, murderes and disappearance of tourists would discourage the other travelers to visit such as destination. Anyway, Bandipur is a peaceful and fearless place. Military camp and police post provide security in Bandipur.

5.6.5 Water Supply

It has a several decade old water supply project. The water is supplied from Jhargaon area of the eastern part of the village. It has natural spring sources at Tin-dhara, Parpani and etc.

5.6.6 Communication

There are about a dozen, telephone lines in Bandipur. It has a wireless set also. It has Namaste telecom tower in Dumre Bazaar so local people can carry mobile phone. So, at the present moment, communication facilities seem to be sufficient.

5.6.7 Electricity

All the localities of Bandipur has been electrified. It has not any problem of electrification at present. But the power cut of load shedding electricity is suffering.

5.6.8 Health Service

Bandipur has a hospital with trained nurses, compunders and doctors. We can also found medical shops in the market area and every types of medicine are available there. In case, if necessary there is one ambulance to take patient to Dumre, Kathmandu, Pokhara and Narayanghat etc. hospital in emergency case.

5.6.9 Drainage System

It has a traditional drainage system around the main bazaar area only. Since it is situated in the hill, dirt and water will directly flow down from the village naturally. So, there is no problem of cleanliness.

5.7 Impact of Tourism Development in Bandipur

As with many other aspects of modern life, tourism has brought its benefit and costs, blessing and curses. Success in attracting tourists and tourism related investments have sometimes led to over-exploitation of tourism resources, which has deteriorated the tourism experience for visitor and the hosts alike. For tourists, the view is often summarized with statement such as “This used to be a nice place, but now it is ruined” because of over-crowing, over-commercialization etc.

The decade of the 90, it has been predicted, will be the “decade of Eco-Tourism” and the travel industry is becoming Sensitive to the mounting global concern about the social costs and environmental damages created by too much tourism.

A brief examination of what appear to be the major effects of tourism development include price-rise (in labor, goods, taxes, land etc.), changes in local attitudes and behavior, loss of resources, access, rights, privacy, denigration of local culture, reduction of aesthetic values, pollution in various forms, lack of control over a destination’s future and specific problems such as vandalism, litters, traffic and paid seasonal employment.

We will discuss all these type of positive and negative impact of tourism activities in Bandipur as follows:

5.7.1 Social-cultural Impact

Tourism has its impact on social-cultural condition of Bandipur. The development of tourism industry in this area has brought a number of changes on the lives of the local people. Local people have benefited from tourism in many ways. The discussion with the local residents revealed that their land a value has increased tremendously kept doubling every two to three years. Local people got many jobs to do modification occurred in tradition and life style, got wider horizon and so on.

The villagers have an opportunity to learn many things from the tourists. The villagers learn quickly the life style of tourists, some language, something about technology that tourists generally carry with them.

With the increase in the number of tourists visiting Bandipur, investment in infrastructural activities like water, electricity, roads and etc. have also increased through the increase is not direct proportion sector but other sector as well.

The local residents feel that there are some harms associated with tourism development. The majority of them believe that villagers especially children and youngsters might learn bad habits from the tourists. Some villagers viewed that the development of tourism may make their village life, customs, values, tradition become unsafe. Traditional patterns being to erode under the influence of the more aggressively utilitarian culture of fashions, technical and material values over spiritual and immaterial culture. Though, some harms are associated with the development of tourism, they are insignificant as compared to benefits if properly handled.

5.7.2 Economic Impact

Tourism is a strong factor to change economic condition in many tourist destinations. Tourist has changed the local people’s economic status within the short period of time. Earning from tourism occupy an important place in the national income of a country.

In some case, the development of tourism of tourism may be the only means of promoting the economic advancement of less developed areas. The under-developed areas of the country can greatly benefit from tourism development. Tourist expenditure at a particular tourist area greatly helps to remove regional imbalances in terms of employment, income and the development. Tourism provides jobs for a large number of skilled and unskilled workers. Construction of new buildings, hotels has been providing jobs to the locals. Impact of tourism upon employment is very important and clear in Bandipur. Among the persons employed in hotels in Bandipur, 100 % were local people including both male and female.

Farmers of Bandipur have greatly been benefited with the development of tourism industry. They got opportunity to sell their farm products to the hotels. Farmers have not worried to go here and there to sell their products. They are thus able to save their time and could be engaged in other productive activities. Not only this, farmers are also getting a reasonable price for their products from the hotel-owners also.

The jobless young people have eagerly taken up a job of guiding tourists and helping them.

Likewise, the rental value of land and building have increased tremendously and the has increased the opportunities to do business locally.

The majority of the locals are of the opinion that the development of tourism would promote cottage industries, infrastructural development in and around the Bandipur, conservation and promotion of natural and cultural assets of the village and so on. Thus, it seems that will the developments of tourism industry, the various industries are likely to come up and flourish in Bandipur.

It is sure that the future development of tourism in Bandipur is likely to raise economic status of the local people. Tourism industry in Bandipur can be emphasized so much that it is the only feasible industry which may bring economic well being of the local people. In this connection, it is necessary to co-ordinate the activities of the local people with the tourism activities.

Here we must note that the most adverse effect of tourism in Bandipur is the spiraling prices of various goods and services. It can not be checked totally. But the most important task will be increasing the income of locals with the help of tourism activities and checking the vice of inflation.

5.7.3 Environmental Impact

It is a well known fact that tourism spoils natural environment. Natural hazards happen mainly due to the deforestation and pollution. The increasing deforestation in Bandipur is a matter to be worried about. It is due to partly by local people and partly by tourism development. But the major responsible for deforestation are construction of roads, buildings, domestic and commercial use of the fuel-wood, extension of agricultural areas etc. these factors have affected the natural vegetation of this area very badly.

In this way, the forested hills are becoming forest less vastly which would sooner or later affect the natural beauty. Deforestation invites landslide and other natural calamities along with extinction of wildlife.

The major attraction of Bandipur is natural scenarios. Thus, it is necessary to preserve the existing natural beauties in this area. To achieve it, first of all, existing forests need to preserved and plantation should be done wherever possible.

Increasing garbage in Bandipur is creating sanitation problem. There has been lack of efforts to maintain cleanliness. Piles of tins. Cans, plastic items, paper etc. were scattered everywhere in Bandipur. It may not be a serious problem at present but in due course of time it will becomes very serious one.

CHAPTER VI

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Summary

“Tourism Industry” in its direct and service oriented sector has been developed into biggest and single important sectoral industry in the world. Even in Nepal, it is one of the most important industries. Considerably, part of the income from the tourism in Nepal is limited to Kathmandu, Pokhara, Chitwan, Khumbhu and Annapurna region only. But the least and minimally frequented areas are also increasing their incomes from the tourist activities. And Bandipur too, is one among them which is gradually emerging as anew tourist destination in Nepal. Anyway, this study is based in Bandipur. Therefore, we will put forward briefly the findings of the field survey in Bandipur as follows:

(a) Findings from the survey of Tourists visiting

The survey of tourists visiting in Bandipur has shown that the place is frequented both by domestic and international tourists of different sex, age and professional groups.

Most of table shows that about 60 percent visiting Bandipur spend less than US$ 10 on lodging. Basically these are the charge made by the home stay and small lodges owner, 30 percent spend 11-20 US$ and only 10 percent spending between 21-30 US$ per day.

Similarly, 50 percent spend less than US$ 10 on food, 35 percent between 11-20 and only 15 percent between 21-30. And also during field visit it is noticed that only 1-5 US$ is spend in other activities such as local handicrafts, local products etc.

The survey shows that majority of tourist’s i.e. 50%, visit Bandipur for the purpose of Village people. This means to see and enjoy the traditional culture, culture heritage folk songs, dance like Ghatu nach, Lakhe nach, Chutka nach etc of village people. Similarly, 40% visit Bandipur for the purpose of pleasure and relax and five percent each for adventure and study.

(b) Findings from the survey of Hotel Owners

The survey of hotels in Bandipur has shown that the accommodation facilities are of low-investment type and privately operated ventures except a resort. 46.42% of the accommodations available in Bandipur are of low cost and easily accessible paying guesthouses. Similarly, 50% of the total accommodations available in Bandipur are medium standard lodges, which are operated giving emphasis to the tourists who are much concerned with village life and tradition. There is only one resort that can meet the standard of hotels or resort, which has 12 rooms and 24 beds.

The accommodation price varies between different classes of hotels. But accommodation charges are very similar among the hotels. The accommodation charge of single bed is from Rs 100-200 per night while double bed room is Rs 200-300 and dormitory room is Rs 400 per night. Similarly, accommodation charges of guesthouses are also similar. They charge Rs 250-300 for one night. Within that they will provide both lodging and fooding. It will be cheaper for domestic tourists whereas the resort in Bandipur charges US$ 15-28 for European and other tourists, IC 550-1000 for Indians, and NC 700-1300 for Nepalese for lodging and fooding according to the need of guest. These prices may change in case of off-season and other cases.

Home stay guesthouse in Bandipur have investment of not more than Rs 80000. Out of 46.42% of total accommodations in Bandipur fall in this investment group. Investment between Rs.80000 to Rs.300000 consists 50% of the total hotels while above 300000 consists 3.57%. All the hotels in Bandipur are self-financed by the owners.

Newars have dominant role in hotel occupation. Most of the big and famous hotels i.e. 75% of the hotels and resort are run by Newars.

The entire paying guesthouse’s income is below 50,000 and small hotels or lodges have also annually income less than fifty thousand. But the hotels like Bandipur Guest House and Old Inn has income between 50000 to 100000. Only one resort i.e Bandipur Mountain Resort has income above 100000.

It is very cheap food price in Bandipur comparing with other tourist area. In general the charge for Breakfast is 20-25 for domestic and 40-60 for international tourists. Rs 40-80 for lunch and dinner each Nepali and 100-150 for internationals. The breakfast, lunch and dinner rates at the resort are US$ 3, 5 and 7 respectively.

All the necessities like vegetables, meat, eggs and fruits are brought from local markets and only when it comes to the goods of large amount and the goods which are not available in the local market then they will purchase from Dumre, Pokhara, Kathmandu and even Narayanghat.

They do agree that overall impact of tourism is positive in their village. In reply of almost all impact questions they answered that it has possess positive effect in villagers except in the cases of growth of cleanliness and price rise in services and commodities. Similarly, they are satisfied with the overall infrastructure facilities that are available in Bandipur.

All the hotel owners are aware with the situation of poor villagers thus they put their emphasis upon the rationale of equal and justifiable distribution of revenue generated from tourism in Bandipur among all the villagers. That is why all the respondents (100) replied against the sole benefit of rich and upper classes. Likewise, about 65% are against the benefit only for those who can invest.

(c) Findings from the survey of Local Residents

The survey of local residents shows that Bandipur does not represent national average of agricultural dependency. Half of the total respondents (50%) were dependent on other than agriculture.

There are altogether 64 local people directly involved in tourism industry through hotel industry. Besides this there are 14 local people who are working as the local guide for tourists. Altogether we can say that the tourism industry in Bandipur has proved employment directly to 78 local people.

Not only direct employment but also local people of Bandipur are engaged in indirect employment in tourism industry. Local residents of Bandipur, like farmers, youngsters, porters and others are getting benefits from tourism in Bandipur.

Local residents of Bandipur accept that overall impact of tourism is positive. It is seen that tourism has brought more positive impact than the negative to the people of Bandipur. About the especial products of Bandipur then more than 50(833.33%) reply Bandipur Orange, Slate and Sere culture are potential tourism products.

Similarly, 55% reply that they call tourist only with white skin where as 45% reply all the visitors including domestic and Indian. All of the respondents favored (91.65% absolutely desired and 8.33% desired) the future pattern of tourism development to benefit all irrespective of caste, creed and class.

(d) Findings from the survey of Key-Informants

Most of the key-informants give more preference of the scenic beauty of Himalayas, Mountain, Sun-rise and Sightseeing to Monuments, Market area etc. as a prime attraction of Bandipur.

The infrastructure facilities that are in very bad condition or bad perceived by key-informants are water supply, health service, solid waste collection and disposal system, drainage system, street lighting and toilets. However, they agree that other facilities, such as communication, electricity, and cleanliness of place, conservation and promotion of natural and cultural assets and behavior of local people and good and some event excellent.

Most of them are aware of the fact that the future pattern of tourism development in Bandipur should be oriented towards the betterment of the all irrespective of caste, creed and class having emphasis upon the poor and lower class.

Forty percent of them say yes when they are asked are the local people are aware of tourism, where as 12(60%) reply that only residents of market area and its surrounding are quite familiar of tourism industry, besides that people are still ignorant about it.

Similarly, only residents around market area called all the visitors’ tourists including domestic and international like Indian, Otherwise, villagers called tourists only to then who have white skin.

6.2 Conclusion

Thus, the study is able to shows that Bandipur has basic infrastructural facilities, which shall be upgraded. It also shows that it has tourism products to attract tourism in future. At present the income generated from tourism is not satisfactory. Neither the distribution of income nor the employments generated from tourism is encouraging. So it is necessary to make active participant of all the local residents in this sector. It will be better in the form of community based village tourism like in Sirubari. If majority of local residents work in this sector being aware of tourism industry and its advantages then they can certainly increase tourist revenue and its equal distribution. It also helps the local people to drive the tourism activities in a sustainable way. The developments of tourism have negative impacts and maximize the positive impacts. Thus, we shall be actualized to increase the level of income of the locals.

6.3 Recommendations

In fact, Nepal has a few development possibilities with comparative advantages. Rural based tourism or village tourism is one of the important alternative sources for economic prosperity. Therefore, tourism industry shall be developed in such as a way that the national development and distribution of income shall be satisfactory in order to avoid the future conflict among the different stratums of the Nepalese society. For the purpose, the study of Bandipur has provided us the following recommendations:

  • Moreover infrastructure like toilet and sanitation, safe drinking water and accommodation facilities should be developed in those communities. In this case the VDC must take a more active role to make funds available to develop the social infrastructures. VDC should link households unable to invest in upgrading the homes to accommodate visitors to the confessionals credit programs made available through different government programs and Nepal Tourism Board.
  • Most of the home stay owners have not received any formal training on tourism like training in hospitality, house keeping, food preparation, services and moreover English language to communicate with the visitors. Thus, such kind of training is necessary to run tourism successfully and smooth.
  • Since paying guesthouses are limited in market area tourism activities are also running within that boundary. So to make equal distribution of the revenue of tourism and to share the benefits within the villagers it is necessary to make greater participation of other members of the society. For e.g tourism activities should be extended to the near community like Magar Ghaon, Gurung Ghaon and the nearest occupational caste community. They should be encouraged and insist to run paying guesthouses. For that their poor living condition, poor hygiene and sanitation should be improved concession credit program and awareness programs like trainings seminars.
  • Similarly, there is lack of trained guide for international and national tourist who could say the whole history of Bandipur about its natural and cultural products.
  • Local natural and cultural tourism products like orange, slate and silk etc should be promoted within tourism. The products of silk like sweater, globe etc could be promoted to tourist as the local gift for memory.
  • Tourists should be ensure about the security and peacefulness of the place.
  • Local natural and cultural tourism products should be highly preserved like below:

1. In order to preserve the ancient beauty of main bazaar and to keep in its natural glory it should be paved by slate as in past. Though it is done in Bindabasini temple area, it is necessary to complete whole market area. Then the entrance of vehicle must be banned whole market area. Similarly, the construction of modern buildings and bungula must be strictly restricted in order to the prime attraction of tourists.

2. The jungle area in and around Bandipur must preserved and a collective effort must be visualized not only for the protection but also from the extension through extensive afforstation program. Thus in turn will help to sustain favorable climate, natural habitation for the wildlife and scenic beauty of the area.

3. Revive the charm of festivals, especially youngsters should be make aware of ancient festivals and rituals which can be one of the main attractions for tourists in off seasons.

4. Revive the occupational characteristics. It will enable us to revive our virtually lost tradition of cottage industries. The developed tourism market will absorb the products. Different types of handicrafts items will certainly boost the level of income among the locals.

5. Repair and maintain all the historical monuments. It must be of paramount important to repair and mountain its medieval looking at its best.

Though there is basic infrastructure available in Bandipur, it is not enough for the tourism development. Thus development and maintenance of available infrastructure is necessary for the development of tourism in Bandipur as follows:

  1. Up gradation of transport facilities must be one of the top priority for the tourism development in Bandipur. The main road from Dumre to Bandipur should be widened, main bazaar should be paved by the slate and the trails should be upgraded including the foot trails from Dumre to Bandipur. Because some tourist may prefer to walk rather than using the modern transport facilities. Similarly, the foot-trail to Siddha-Gufa nearest destination like Mukundsen Gadi should be upgraded.
  2. Similarly, up gradation of accommodation facilities and catering facilities is necessary, but it should be done within loosing its glory and originality of village.
  3. Water supply should be plenty and reliable, modern communications like e-mail, fax and internet facilities should be made easily accessible and more circuit of the telephone lines should be installed in minimum charge in future.
  4. The hospital shall be upgraded to meet the local as well as tourist demand immediately. Medical equipments and trained manpower must be present in the hospital round the year.
  5. Drainage, sanitation system and solid waste collection and disposal system should be upgraded and extended to all of the villages and make them aware about it.
  6. Similarly, street lights should be installed which will have positive effects to the beautification of the village.
  7. Viewpoints should be constructed in order to enjoy the scenic beauty of nature. For e.g. view point to watch Himalayas, sun-rise and sun-set etc.

Last but not the least advertisement and promotional activities should be gear up in international and national level in following way.

  1. Advertisements: It shall be done in national and international level as below:

i. Audio (radio) and visual (T.V and Video) by producing documentary as

well as advertisement films for this purpose.

ii. Newspapers and journals

iii. Hoarding board and signboards.

  1. Promotional Activities

i. Attending National and international tourism fair, seminar and conferences.

ii. Sufficient printing materials such as brouchures, maps, booklets, stickers, photographs and posters.

iii. Direct contact and interaction will private and public tourism related institutions.

Recommendations, to extend the stay of tourists

Everything is available in Bandipur to make it one of the best tourist destinations. It is rich in culture, scenic beauty, historical importance, accessibility and accommodation. But there are some points that should be remain in order to extend the stay of tourists.

  • Upgrading quality of services, hotels, restaurants and friendly behavior of locals with tourists.
  • Creating recreational facilities like adventure sports; Para-gliding, Rock-climbing, Caving, Mountain biking and Eco-trek. Since the studies have shown there is high probability of Para-gliding it could be one of the important factors to lengthen the stay of tourists in future.
  • One of the most recreational and adventure attraction for tourist that could be developed in Bandipur according to locals is to make lake by constructing dam in Fudi river.
  • Developing hiking route from Bandipur like Bandipur to Chitwan and back to Bandipur.
  • Organizing matosav continuously.
  • Protecting local ecology and environment

At conclusion, it is recommended to develop Bandipur as a tourism center for the following activities:

1) Hill Resort

i. Warm winter

ii. Pleasant summer

iii. Magnificent Autumn and spring

2) Educational Center

i. Educational Institutions

ii. Training Institutions

3) AdventureSportCenter

i. Para-gliding

ii. Rock climbing

iii. Caving

iv.Mountain biking

v. Eco-trek

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