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Components of Communication Process

Updated on February 21, 2013

Communication is a continuous method of exchanging messages which are verbal and non verbal. Message is a precondition of communication and it must be expressed through some method to the receiver. It is very vital that the receiver fully understands this message completely in the same way as it was meant to be understood by the sender and in return he must reply within a stipulated time. Hence, communication is considered as a two-way method which is unfinished without the sender receiving a response from the recipient about how well he has followed the message.

Components of Communication Process

The main components of the communication process are as follows:

Context: Communication is influenced by the situation in which it happens and this may be chronological, cultural, social or physical. Hence, any communication continues depending on the situation or context and the sender of the message selects it in reference with the context.

Sender / Encoder: The sender or the encoder is an individual who conveys the message and to do this he uses certain symbols or signs (visual aids or graphic or words) in order to send the message and to receive the needed response. For example, a training manager who is training new employees. The sender may be a person or he may belong to a group or to an organization. The impact of the message depends highly on the views, approach, skills and competencies, background and the experience or knowledge which the sender has. The verbal and non verbal symbols that he has chosen are important for understanding the message fully by the recipient in the same manner as the sender anticipated.

Message: The message is the main idea which the sender wants to convey and is a sign that brings forth the recipient’s reply. The process of communication starts about the subject matter of the message to be communicated and therefore, the main goal of the message must be comprehensible.

Medium: Medium is a method that is utilized for transmitting or exchanging the message. Hence, it is important that the sender must select a proper medium for conveying the message or else it may be misinterpreted or not conveyed properly to the recipients. For this reason, it is important to appropriately select the medium in order to convey the message efficiently and the recipient to be able to interpret it correctly. The mode and choice of communication differs and is dependent on its features. For example, when the message has to be conveyed to a tiny group of persons the written medium is selected, whereas when an instant feedback is needed from the recipient a vocal medium is selected to avoid any future misunderstandings.

Recipient / Decoder: It is a person or a group for whom the message is meant or intended or expected to be conveyed. The extent in which the recipient understands the message depends upon many factors like the recipient’s knowledge, their reply to the message and the dependence of the decoder.

Feedback: It is the main element of communication as it gives permission to the sender to evaluate the effectiveness of the message. This aids the sender in being able to approve the proper understanding by the decoder. The feedback received may be either verbal/oral or non-verbal (in the way of gestures, sighs, smiles or facial expressions etc). It may also be through written form using reports, memos, notes, emails etc.


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    • profile image


      3 years ago

      This was the best illustrated notes...was really helpfull

    • dhimanreena profile image

      Reena Dhiman 

      4 years ago

      You impeccably detailed all essential attributes of communication process. This is helpful in both professional and persona lives.

    • profile image

      Irene N David 

      4 years ago

      Thanks, this was helpful

    • triciajean profile image

      Patricia Lapidus 

      5 years ago from Bantam, CT

      Thanks. You have touched on some elements of communication that often go unnoticed, and yet these are essential. Omit one component and there is no, or little, communication.


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