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Decision-making and consumers behaviour
Every day of our lives need to constantly make decisions, make choices . Human actions are the result of a choice between options. Nowadays almost all activities are developed on a project basis. It is necessary to carefully plan our activities. This requires us to constantly make decisions and solve problems. Decision-making is a process that happens anywhere, anytime.
Daily we are faced with many problems we have to solve. Every decisionis achoice between alternatives. There are two types ofdecisions. The first type is impulsive. The second type requires time and a lot of thinking. It is easy to make a decision, but it is very hard to make the right decision. Decision-making influenced by psychological factors such as social environment, experience and personal value system. The process of decision making is intuitive, logical or rational. For example, the consumer purchase is entirely subjective and behavioral process. It passes through several stages:
- emergence ofa need
- collecting andprocessing information forpurchase
- evaluationof alternatives
- decision to purchase
- behaviorafter the purchase
The main factors influencing the behavior of consumers to making purchase are:
• Cultural factors - cultural factors have the most depth, but at the same time general and indirect impact on consumer behavior
• Social factors - the main groups of social factors are reference groups, family and various social roles and statuses.
- Personal factors - age and stage of family life, profession, economic conditions, lifestyle, personality and self-perception
Psychological factors are another group with very strong influence on decision making. The most important factors in this group are motivation, perception, learning, beliefs and attitudes.
Motivation is a driving force for the consumers. It arises from a state of tension caused by the unsatisfied need. In the literature there are many psychological theories of motivation.
Perception is a process in which a person selects, organizes and interprets adopted information in order to build meaningful picture of the world. People perceive the same object in different ways because perception is limited to three processes- selective attention, selective distortion and selective retention. Selective attention means that human attention has a selective ability. One tends to notice stimuli which are associated with its current needs. Selective distortion means that every person is always willing to interpret the information in a way that supports his already formed opinions. Selective retention means that it is easier to remember information that supports the ideas and views of the individual.
Learning is important for the consumer behavior, because for the most part it is learned behavior.
Beliefs can be based on knowledge, opinion or belief. Producers are very interested in what opinions people have about their products. These beliefs create the image of the product and brand. Particularly important for businesses operating on a global scale is that buyers often have different beliefs about brands or products, depending on where they are produced.
The attitude of the people determines whether they like or dislike something. Attitudes are extremely difficult to change. Marketers need to fit our products into existing attitudes rather than trying to change people's attitudes.
Decision making is a critical part of management and organizations. This process underlies the planning activities of an organization. The actual management decision is a complex and sequential process that consists of several stages and phases, beginning with the formulation of the management problem and ending with its solution.