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Genetic Discrimination In the Workplace: What You Need to Know

Updated on March 8, 2017
FlourishAnyway profile image

FlourishAnyway is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist with applied experience in corporate human resources and consulting.

The Future Is Already Here

Some companies secretly tested job applicants and employees for genetic defects before the passage of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA).
Some companies secretly tested job applicants and employees for genetic defects before the passage of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA). | Source

GINA Sure Ain't No Lady

How does GINA affect your workplace?

If you're thinking that you don't know this "Gina woman," read on. Chances are you're not familiar with the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA).

Secret Genetic Testing of Employees: Why GINA Was Needed

Can you imagine how violated you would feel if your employer genetically tested you without your knowledge or consent?

And what if the company then acted upon that information to deny you a job opportunity or to terminate your employment? Talk about Big Brother!

Although not commonplace, situations like these have indeed occurred. They are vivid enough to have prompted a federal law protecting American workers against such intrusions.

Understanding GINA's Background

Although GINA has been widely criticized as a solution in search of a problem, perhaps the law was simply an idea ahead of its time.

Genetic tests are available for 2,200 diseases, ranging from Duchenne muscular dystrophy to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers.1 While some tests are used to definitively diagnose a condition (such as Fragile X Syndrome), other tests simply determine a person's increased risk for a disorder.

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To be clear, there was no evidence of rampant genetic discrimination in employment leading up to GINA's passage. However, the few cases that became public were alarming examples of employers' intrusion upon workers' basic privacy rights.

So why would employers discriminate against applicants or employees based on their genetic information? Often the answer involves stereotypes and misperceptions.

Imaged or not, employers may fear that the employee (or his/her dependent) will create excessive medical expenses and requests for leave. The company may also believe that the individual's genetic condition could create workplace injuries, excessive absences, lateness, and poor performance.

Whatever the reason, genetic discrimination in employment now violates federal law. But it wasn't always that way.

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks
The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks

This book blew me away. Read the fascinating and tragic tale of Henrietta Lacks, a poor black tobacco farmer whose cells were taken from her without her consent. Those cells became the basis of modern gene mapping, cloning, and life-saving vaccines and they made corporations billions. Yet her family remains impoverished. This is a cautionary story with modern implications for anyone seeking to hand over their genetic keys to 23andme and other companies.

 

23 and "We"?

Curious consumers are turning to Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing companies like 23andMe.  GINA protects workers from genetic information employment discrimination.
Curious consumers are turning to Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing companies like 23andMe. GINA protects workers from genetic information employment discrimination. | Source

Privacy Violations That Paved The Way for GINA: Tell Me They Didn't Actually Do That

Dupont

From 1972 until the early 1980s, Dupont screened all African American job applicants for both the sickle cell trait and the disease.2

Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder that primarily affects people of African and Mediterranean descent. It is a serious condition that can cause infection, organ failure, and early death.3

The company defended its actions in Congressional hearings at the time. It said the testing program was voluntary, and its results were used simply for employees' "personal use" and their "education and edification."

However, there was no formal company education program for the disease, and results were divulged to at least two federal agencies without employees' consent. Also, the company medical director accessed results himself on a "need to know" basis.

What did you inherit from your grandparents?
What did you inherit from your grandparents? | Source

How GINA Is Related To Other Types of Discrimination Claims

An employee who claims genetic discrimination might also claim one or more of the following, depending on the facts of their case:

Disability Discrimination: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protects employees who have a disability, a record of a disability, or are regarded as disabled.

Many inherited traits are disabling conditions. However, even a pre-symptomatic employee with a genetic disorder who is treated differently may have a claim under both the ADA and GINA.

Race or Sex Discrimination: By their very nature, genetically-related conditions are often linked with race or gender.

Examples of such conditions include:

  • Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy which disproportionately affects males
  • Sarcoidosis which afflicts African Americans and females at higher rates and
  • Cystic Fibrosis which disproportionately impacts Caucasians.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

Norman-Bloodsaw v. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (1998)

This case was the first class action lawsuit to raise concerns about genetic privacy in the workplace.4

Job applicants at a research facility that did business with the U.S. Department of Energy had to provide blood and urine samples for standard pre-employment tests. However, genetic tests were covertly performed. Female job applicants were pregnancy tested and African American employees were tested for the sickle cell trait.

Applicants also received testing for syphilis, and both Latino and African American employees were singled out for repeated syphilis testing during their careers.

Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway (2002)

One of the nation's largest railroads reached a settlement for $2.2 million after it tested employees for a genetic marker associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome without their consent. The company claimed that the testing was necessary for determining whether the employees' Workers Compensation injuries were work-related.

One of the tested employees inadvertently learned from the company nurse that the tests he had taken were genetic in nature, and he confronted the railway's chief medical officer. The worker was then investigated and threatened with termination.

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To halt testing, the employee and his co-workers filed an injunction with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). The case made national news, as the injunction occurred during the same week as the Human Genome Project made headlines with the announcement of a draft sequence to the human genome.

America knew we had entered a Brave New World.

American Management Association Survey (2004)

A 2004 study by the American Management Association revealed that one in six of the companies surveyed collected family medical history data from employees. (This is the same type of information that your personal doctor might ask you.)

Some companies also genetically tested for risks such as breast and colon cancer and for diseases such as Huntington's, as well as susceptibility to workplace hazards (e.g., known carcinogens used in their manufacturing processes). Up to half of companies who collected such data acknowledged using the information to inform their decision-making regarding hiring, job assignments, and terminations.

Genetic Testing: Is This Opening Pandora's Box?

GINA prohibits employers from requesting, requiring or purchasing genetic information about their employees or their employees' family members
GINA prohibits employers from requesting, requiring or purchasing genetic information about their employees or their employees' family members | Source

GINA To The Rescue?

A majority of states have laws protecting genetic privacy, although their content varies. The passage of GINA in 2008 provided Federal "teeth" as well as consistency.

What is NOT included in GINA?

GINA addresses discrimination in employment and health insurance. However, it does NOT protect against genetic discrimination in the following areas:

  • life insurance
  • disability insurance
  • long-term care insurance
  • housing
  • education
  • mortgage lending6
  • military and Veterans Administration services.7

Some of these are key omissions for health and disability-related conditions.

GINA: The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008

GINA prohibits discrimination on the basis of genetic information in both employment and health insurance settings. It also imposes strong limits on genetic information disclosure.

Impact On The Workplace

Employers are specifically prohibited from discriminating against job applicants, employees, or former employees because of their genetic information. Under the law -- which became effective in November 2009 -- employers cannot legally request, require or purchase genetic information about their employee or their family members.5

Some Things Are Just Chance

The Stoeckls held different religious beliefs when they met in 1908 and quickly decided to marry.  Whose religion would they follow?  They flipped a coin on it.  Catholicism won out.
The Stoeckls held different religious beliefs when they met in 1908 and quickly decided to marry. Whose religion would they follow? They flipped a coin on it. Catholicism won out. | Source

"If you look deeply into the palm of your hand, you will see your parents and all generations of your ancestors. All of them are alive in this moment. Each is present in your body. You are the continuation of each of these people."

— Thich Nhat Hanh (Vietnamese Zen Buddhist monk)

"Family Member" According To GINA

GINA defines "family member" broadly, including the following:

  1. a dependent as a result of marriage, birth, adoption, or placement for adoption
  2. up to a fourth degree relative.

This includes a lot of people!

In case you were wondering ... that's the employee's parents, siblings, children, grandparents, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, half-siblings, great-grandparents, great grandchildren, great uncles/aunts, first cousins, great-great-grandparents, great-great-grandchildren, and the children of the employee's first cousins!

How Does GINA Define "Genetic Information"?

Genetic Information INCLUDES
Genetic Information EXCLUDES
an employee’s or job applicant's genetic tests
HIV test
the genetic tests of their family members
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
disease or disorder symptoms of an employee or their family member
cholesterol test
the employee's or family member's participation in clinical research that includes genetic services
liver function test
genetic information about the fetus or embryo of a pregnant employee (or her family member) or one who is seeking the services of reproductive technology
Drug and alcohol tests
 
information about an an individual's sex and age
Adapted from: U.S. Department of Labor

Where Will the Future Take Us With Genetic Testing?

We all probably have some genetic secrets hidden in our DNA.
We all probably have some genetic secrets hidden in our DNA. | Source

Who Is Covered By GINA?

GINA applies to employers of 15 or more people, including

  • private employers
  • state and local governments
  • educational institutions
  • employment agencies and
  • labor organizations.9

Source

Suggested Reading

Should I Get 23andMe DNA Analysis? Risks and Benefits of Genetic Testing

Be an informed healthcare consumer by understanding possible medical, legal, and personal risks.

Modeled after Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (which forbids discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin), GINA makes it unlawful to use an applicant or employee's genetic information to make employment decisions, including hiring, promotion, discharge, pay, benefits, job training, classification, referral, and other aspects of employment.

An employer is also disallowed from requesting, requiring or purchasing genetic information about an employee or his or her family member. Harassment on the basis on genetic information as well as retaliation are also prohibited.

You Can't Help Who You Are ... Genetically At Least

Embrace who you are.  There's only one YOU.  This is my dad in Ireland at Grianán of Aileach as he connects with the site of his ancestors who ruled Ireland and Scotland for centuries.
Embrace who you are. There's only one YOU. This is my dad in Ireland at Grianán of Aileach as he connects with the site of his ancestors who ruled Ireland and Scotland for centuries. | Source

Exceptions To GINA

To every rule, there is an exception. GINA is no different.

While GINA generally prohibits an employer from acquiring genetic information, it does have several exceptions:10

  1. "Watercooler exception" - If a company has incidental knowledge of an employee's genetic information — for example, because a manager accidentally overhears the employee discussing his family member's illness — that is not a violation of GINA.
  2. A company may legitimately request family medical history in certifying an FMLA leave request where an employee seeks leave to care for a seriously ill family member.
  3. If certain requirements are met, genetic information such as family medical history may be obtained as a part of voluntary workplace health and wellness programs.
  4. A company may incidentally gain genetic information through commercially and publicly available documents like newspapers or websites. It is important that the employer does not intentionally seek genetic information out.
  5. Sometimes a company is required by law to genetically monitor the biological effects of toxic substances in its workplace. Programs may also be voluntarily available.

  6. Employers who conduct DNA testing for law enforcement (e.g., forensic labs) are permitted to use DNA markers for quality control purposes to detect sample contamination.

These exceptions have been described as "narrow." Only time — and case law — will tell whether this is true. Additionally, time will also tell us whether GINA is indeed a solution looking for a problem or instead a law ahead of its time.

There's no putting the genie back in the bottle.
There's no putting the genie back in the bottle. | Source

Notes

1 Severo, Richard. "Du Pont Defends Genetic Screening." The New York Times. Last modified October 18, 1981. http://www.nytimes.com/1981/10/18/us/du-pont-defends-genetic-screening.html.

2Sayre, Carolyn. "Sickle Cell Anemia - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia." Health News - The New York Times. Accessed October 3, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/sickle-cell-anemia/overview.html

3 French, Samantha. "Genetic Testing In The Workplace: The Employer's Coin Toss." Duke Law Scholarship Repository. Accessed October 3, 2013. http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1056&context=dltr.

4Vasichek, Laurie A. "Genetic Discrimination In The Workplace: Lessons From The Past and Concerns For The Future." Saint Louis University Journal Of Health Law & Policy 3, no. 13 (2009): 13-40. Accessed March 8, 2017. http://law.slu.edu/sites/default/files/Journals/vasichek_article.pdf

5Nemeth, Patricia, and Terry W. Bonnette. "Genetic Discrimination in Employment." Labor and Employment Law (2009): 42-45. Accessed October 4, 2013. http://www.michbar.org/journal/pdf/pdf4article1461.pdf.

6Shanks, Pete. "DNA Donors Should Be Aware of Privacy Risks." Psychology Today. Last modified May 28, 2012. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/genetic-crossroads/201205/dna-donors-should-be-aware-privacy-risks.

7Vorhaus, Dan. "Surreptitious Genetic Testing: WikiLeaks Highlights Gap in Genetic Privacy Law." Genomics Law Report. Last modified December 9, 2010. http://www.genomicslawreport.com/index.php/2010/12/09/surreptitious-genetic-testing-wikileaks-highlights-gap-in-genetic-privacy-law/.

8U.S. Government Printing Office. "Federal Register, Volume 74 Issue 39 (Monday, March 2, 2009)." Accessed October 4, 2013. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2009-03-02/html/E9-4221.htm.

9 EEOC Home Page. "Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination: Questions And Answers." Accessed October 4, 2013. http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/qanda.html.

10EEOC Home Page. "Genetic Discrimination." Accessed October 4, 2013. http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/genetic.cfm.

© 2013 FlourishAnyway

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    • FlourishAnyway profile image
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      FlourishAnyway 7 weeks ago from USA

      Mona - Thanks so much for your feedback. The thing about this type of discrimination is that it affects people and they may not ever know it. At-home genetic testing companies such as 23andMe have now partnered with a number of large pharmaceutical companies so that now people's personal genetic information is at risk more than ever.

    • grand old lady profile image

      Mona Sabalones Gonzalez 7 weeks ago from Philippines

      Wow, I know so little about genetic testing to begin with, that every single sentence in this article was informative. I didn't even know there was a law about it. When things like this happen in your world, you tend to wonder what else is going on that you don't know about. Great article:)

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
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      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Roberta - Thanks for weighing in. Many people don't think about the ramifications.

    • RTalloni profile image

      RTalloni 3 years ago from the short journey

      Interesting, objective, and loaded with food for thought. It is important for all of us to look at the issues and learn what we can about the testing because everyone should have a voice on the issues, not just a select few.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Dolores - At least we can be educated about what the risks and possibilities are! It is a brave new world. Thanks for reading and taking the time to comment.

    • Dolores Monet profile image

      Dolores Monet 3 years ago from East Coast, United States

      Talk about invasive! I thought it was bad when employers could test your urine, but that they were testing DNA is scary!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      ologsinquito - With 23andme's recent run-in with the FDA, it makes me wonder what happens with all the data if they cannot do business as they intended? Although I like the idea of running a lot of health information through statistical analyses looking for patterns -- it may advance medical discoveries more quickly -- the privacy issues are mind-boggling. We don't seem to have an appropriate level of concern, given the risks. Glad you stopped by. Thanks for sharing and pinning.

    • ologsinquito profile image

      ologsinquito 3 years ago from USA

      Genetic testing can pose a lot of problems. I'm sharing and pinning this one.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Suzanne - Thanks for stopping by. Genetic discrimination seems far-fetched at first blush, but as soon as you learn more about it you realize that it's actually not such a distant concern after all. Have a great weekend.

    • Suzanne Day profile image

      Suzanne Day 3 years ago from Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

      I didn't even know this was happening - thank you to opening my eyes more! I'll probably notice GINA in my country in the next few years, we are always following in America's footsteps.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      SallyTX - Thanks for reading, commenting and sharing! Have a great day!

    • SallyTX profile image

      Sally Branche 3 years ago from Only In Texas!

      Fascinating information! Voted up, useful, interesting and shared!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Jeannieinabottle - Thanks for reading and commenting. Yes, it's a good thing GINA is in place to protect employees from this type of discrimination.

    • Jeannieinabottle profile image

      Jeannie InABottle 3 years ago from Baltimore, MD

      I did not even realize this was something employers could do. At least there are laws against it already. Interesting hub!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Writer Fox - Thanks for reading and commenting. I hope anyone considering genetic testing gets life insurance, disability insurance, or LTC insurance before engaging in testing. And I hope they keep their testing and results top secret from anyone in the workplace. Mum's the word.

    • Writer Fox profile image

      Writer Fox 3 years ago from the wadi near the little river

      Fantastic research! I know that genetic-specific treatment is wonderful for new medical therapies, but, as you have written, that same genetic information can be used to harm us as well. If insurance companies are allowed access to the information, it would prove difficult for many to qualify for health insurance and life insurance. Voted up!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Eddy - Thanks for reading and commenting. I appreciate your kind words.

    • Eiddwen profile image

      Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales

      Another wonderful hub by you and voted up of course. Here's wishing you a great day too.

      Eddy.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Liz - Thanks for reading and commenting. Hopefully GINA has made it a past practice.

    • epbooks profile image

      Elizabeth Parker 3 years ago from Las Vegas, NV

      Wow- I had never heard of this before and didn't even know it went on. Thank you for sharing this information!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      agusfanani - Thanks for reading and commenting. Thanks to GINA there is a minimum standard for covered employers. Some state laws may go beyond GINA's requirements.

    • agusfanani profile image

      agusfanani 3 years ago from Indonesia

      I've never heard about GINA until I read this hub.

      without GINA, employee screening can too deep into one's privacy and become very controversial in its practice. Thank you for sharing this informative hub.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Nell - Thanks for reading and commenting. Hopefully with GINA we have seen the worst of it now that it is illegal.

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 3 years ago from England

      This is just appalling! I don't think this happens over here but who knows? mind you, after reading a book a few years ago, can't remember the author, it surprised me, and stunned me that back in the 20s in America they used genetics to sterilize women and men, seems that's how hitler got the idea! this is just the next step, nell

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      kidscrafts - Hopefully GINA has put a cap on most genetic testing with employment, however life insurance -- that is another story. GINA does not protect you against higher premiums, denials, etc. with life insurance. Nor does it pertain to disability and long-term care insurance. Bottom line is if you are getting one of those "for curiosity only" genetic tests, get those things before testing. Thank you for reading and commenting!

    • kidscrafts profile image

      kidscrafts 3 years ago from Ottawa, Canada

      I find that very dangerous to test people on their genetic before hiring them; where does it stop. Next thing, life insurances will ask to test you before you take a life insurance.

      This kind of "technology" should be use for the good.... like the case of the son of CraftytotheCore. But it shouldn't have to have cost all her life savings!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      DDE - Thanks for reading and commenting. Some of instances of genetic discrimination are outrageous and eye opening. Hopefully this will help folks be aware of their rights.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Crafty - You are welcome indeed. I write these articles because I know it is hard for people to stand up for rights they are not really aware of. Have a great weekend.

    • CraftytotheCore profile image

      CraftytotheCore 3 years ago

      Thank you so much for your kind words Flourish! It certainly was an awful time. I hadn't heard of fragile X before and going through the genetic testing really helped us grow stronger as a family for sure.

      As far as the workplace, that would be horrible. I think about my son and if someone did that to him, I wouldn't be too happy to think that people are discriminated like that. Thank you for writing this article and bringing this to light my friend.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Crafty - How stressful to have to go through "peple issues" and resulting financial concerns on top of the health issues. So many people keep their genetic testing and disabilities (their own and their family members') to themselves because of fear of repercussions socially, with their employment, etc. Stay strong.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Elias - Thank you for reading and commenting. I think GINA may be one law where we were actually a it more proactive than usual. Usually we wait until a problem gets severely out of hand before legislating it. Not in this case. The issue had overwhelming support of both parties and the Notice Of Proposed Rulemaking received no resistance in the form of commentary.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      JoanCA - Thank you for stopping by. The excuses that companies offered were sometimes a little much to hear. I hope GINA serves it's intended purpose.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Faith Reaper - Thank you for reading, commenting, and sharing. I certainly hope that GINA has curtailed such requests for family medical information and genetic information testing in the workplace.

    • JoanCA profile image

      JoanCA 3 years ago

      It doesn't surprise me that companies would use genetic testing to discriminate. I hadn't heard of GINA but it's good to know this has already been addressed.

    • Elias Zanetti profile image

      Elias Zanetti 3 years ago from Athens, Greece

      Any form of discrimination in a workplace is a serious issue that deserves our attention. You have presented some interesting cases in your hub and of course, the GINA case which sounds (and is) amazing. Genetic discrimination might sound like a thing out of a sci-fi dystopian novel but it is obviously a reality. It would be scary to imagine a day that we would have to apply for a job position with a C.V. and a blood sample. Thanks for this interesting hub. Voted & shared.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      bravewarrior - Thank you for reading and taking a moment to comment. Hopefully GINA has ended such practices of the recent past by making them illegal. It is, however, important for employees and job applicants to know their rights and WHY a law exists. Appalling, yes. Real, unfortunately.

    • Faith Reaper profile image

      Faith Reaper 3 years ago from southern USA

      Wow, Flourish, this is both fascinating and terrifying to say the least! I have never heard of such and, yes, I certainly would feel violated in this case.

      Thank you for this eye-opener piece here ... very comprehensive and excellent hub as always.

      Up and more and sharing

      God bless you, Faith Reaper

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Mhatter99 - Thank you for reading and taking the time to comment. Have an awesome day!

    • CraftytotheCore profile image

      CraftytotheCore 3 years ago

      Wow this was interesting Flourish! My son went through a panel of genetic testing at Yale. They thought he had Fragile X at one point. Fortunately he does not. But it really helped our family.

      Here's why. Sadly, my son was dealt a rotten hand in the beginning when he started pre-k. People were accusing his "issues" on me, never looking in to the matter further, despite the fact that he has phonological disorder. No one ever bothered to link the disorder with any other issues that he might have had.

      It got to the point where he couldn't stay in a regular classroom and special ed wasn't offered. So, I homeschooled him, took him to the best doctors and hospitals, got the diagnosis and went back to the school with that. It cost me an entire life savings, put our family in gross amounts of debt, but in the end, through genetic testing....we were able to prove what he doesn't have as well as what he has.

      He was eventually diagnosed with Autism and ADHD among other problems and as such, he is now respected for his abilities instead of being ruled a problem child.

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 3 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      Genetic Discrimination In the Workplace: Are the Risks For Real something I have never thought would happen at any workplace and to think it actually did is not how it should be totally way out of line. A useful and well-researched on hub

    • bravewarrior profile image

      Shauna L Bowling 3 years ago from Central Florida

      This is appalling! I wasn't aware genetic testing was being conducted to screen employees. That, to me is a blatant violation of rights. This world never ceases to amaze (or disgust) me!

    • FlourishAnyway profile image
      Author

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      Bill - Thanks for reading, voting, sharing. In my HR experience, Some of the cases leading up to GINA are indeed amazing, huh? All of us probably have something hidden in that DNA whether we know it or not.

    • bdegiulio profile image

      Bill De Giulio 3 years ago from Massachusetts

      Hi FA. How interesting. To be honest I had never heard of the GINA Act until now. It amazes me that there are some companies out there that would use genetic testing to discriminate against employees. Thanks for the education. Shared, VU, etc... have a great weekend.

    • Mhatter99 profile image

      Martin Kloess 3 years ago from San Francisco

      Well researched and presented. thank you