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Most Recognized Organizational Leadership Models
Leadership is the art of influencing positive outcomes in a variety of organizational situations. Human resources come from different backgrounds with their own sets of cultural norms and respond to leadership structures according to their own previous patterns. As such different leadership styles are more suitable than others in developing an enterprise. This hub presents the most recognized leadership styles including their underlying assumptions and defining characteristics.
Transactional Leadership is prone towards well-developed structures with well-defined rewards and punishment. Organizational culture is one of strict controls within which promotions are handed out for superior performance and punishment for lack of performance or rules violation.
People are motivated by reward and punishment.
Social systems work best with a clear chain of command.
When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager.
The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do.
Leads by reward and punishment.
Comfortable when rules of conduct are strictly defined.
The rules are more important than the personnel.
Transformational Leadership is wedded to the idea that when people are properly appreciated they will perform. Employees and volunteers have a deep desire to be a part of a winning organization. They will perform at their optimal levels when they feel they are part of something bigger than themselves. A transformational leader has a personality that makes people feel like they can do anything. They inspire through words and actions not through rewards and punishment.
People will follow a person who inspires them.
A person with vision and passion can achieve great things.
The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.
Stifled by too much structure.
Since the late 1990s, organizational behavioral scientists observed an increasing tolerance and even promotion of spirituality in the workplace. Given the push for more openness for spirituality in the workplace, leadership scholars began to examine and suggest models of spiritual leadership in business and other types of organizations.
At least two models of spiritual leadership were suggested since the year 2000 including Blackaby and Blackaby's (2001) model and Dr. Louis Fry's (2003) model. The Blackaby and Blackaby spiritual leadership model was posited exclusively from a Christian point of view, while Fry's model was more generic and applied across many types of organizations. Not surprisingly, Fry's spiritual leadership model gained more acceptance among organizational and leadership behavior scholars and practitioners.
Spiritual leadership as devised by Dr. Fry and colleagues suggests a three part model wherein (a) the practice of spiritual leadership results in (b) spiritual well-being of follower-subordinates that in turn drive (c) favorable organizational outcomes.
Spiritual Leadership is made of three components including (a) vision; (b) altruistic love; and (c) hope/faith. The fruit of spiritual leadership is a sense of (a) calling and (b) membership in follower-subordinates. The outcomes of the sense of calling and membership are (a) heightened performance; (b) organizational commitment; and (c) increased profit and sales growth - to name just a few.
Participative Leadership is the type of leadership that allows personnel from all levels of the organization to be involved in the decision-making process. It believes that more participation will lead to greater ownership in the mission of the company.
Involvement in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions.
People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision-making.
People are less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on joint goals.
When people make decisions together, the social commitment to one another is greater and thus increases their commitment to the decision.
Several people deciding together make better decisions than one person alone.
Organizations are as dynamic as the climate within which they participate and the human personnel which fills its positions. As such, decision-making takes on many shapes and sizes. Accordingly, leadership cannot be limited to one style. Different situations call for different types of solutions. Situational Leadership is about finding the best solution to a given problem.
The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors.
The Situational Leader is very versatile.
He can wear many hats and is keen to a wide variety of solutions.
Charismatic Leadership moves an organization by its can-do personality. Human personnel is moved to perform by the charismatic leaders ability to persuade through kind words or powerful argument. This type of leadership often depletes human capital of self-motivation. Such charsmatic stimulation can be transformational but not always.
Charm and grace are all that is needed to create followers.
Self-belief is a fundamental need of leaders.
People follow others that they personally admire.
Love the limelight
Are the focal point of the organization.
Often leaves a large void when they depart
The Quiet Leader
The actions of a leader speak louder than his or her words.
People are motivated when you give them credit rather than take it yourself.
Ego and aggression are neither necessary nor constructive.
Leads from behind the scenes.
Is not really comfortable in the limelight.
No less driven than a charismatic leader.
The leader has responsibility for the followers.
Leaders have a responsibility towards society and those who are disadvantaged.
People who want to help others best do this by leading them.
The Servant Leader sees himself as just that a servant to the organization and its personnel.
He or she does not lead for strokes of ego, but for the greater good of the organization.
He or she is self-sacrificial.
When the organization succeeds, he gives credit to the team members.
When a project fails, she takes responsibility for the downfall.
Level 5 Leadership
This type of leadership style was discovered by business researcher Jim Collins. It is a combination of the Quiet Leader and the Servant Leadership models.
The company's name is more important than the leader's name.
Leaders are merely facilitators of the corporate vision.
Get the right people on the bus -- the more talented the better.
Level Five Leaders are humble and self-effacing but no less driven.
They are more interested in the long-term health and success of the corporation than in personnel recognition or accolades.
They are not afraid to hire management personnel who is smarter than they are.
They lead their organizations to find their best niche and strip away all the unnecessary activities.