The journey of Globalization -Ancient Time to Modern Age
1) Ancient Time
We learned in our childhood that a man can’t live alone. He has to depend on others to survive. Thus, society forms. The basic needs like food, clothing, shelter, medicine, education etc can’t be managed alone. A person may be a good farmer or may be good at hunting but he can’t manage all the other needs to maintain his daily life.
For instance, in the ancient time, people were not used to stay together and were not also used to stay in a fixed place. They were used to move from one place to another and to collect fruits, catch fish or hunt wild animals to eat. They also had to protect themselves against natural threats like storm, flood, earthquake etc alone. When they realized that it is difficult and even quite impossible in some cases to survive alone and it is better to stay together, the concepts like ‘family’ and later 'society' came into existence. In fact, the realization of staying together is the starting point of the journey toward globalization.
Firstly, people began to stay together in caves instead of moving around jungles and collect foods not only for themselves but also for their family. Secondly, when people found that they had surpluses after fulfilling their own needs, they began to share those with others in exchange of their own other needs and thus the concept 'socialization' came into existence.
2) 20th Century
In the 20th century a major shift in standard of living was seen, as a result of dramatic changes in politics, economics, society, culture, science, technology, and communication. The century’s technological and scientific progress were more than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization. Terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. Scientific discoveries, such as the theory of relativity and quantum physics, drastically changed the worldview of scientists, causing them to realize that the universe was fantastically more complex than previously believed. Accelerating scientific understanding, more efficient communications, and faster transportation transformed the world in those hundred years more rapidly and widely than in any previous century. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western society's basic form of personal transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within the span of a few decades. Humans explored outer space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon. Mass media, telecommunications, and information technology (especially computers, paperback books, public education, and the Internet) made the world's knowledge more widely available. [Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/20th_century]
2.1 Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution was actually a major turning point in the history of globalization. In fact, industrial revolution enforced and accelerated the journey of globalization. It is the stage during when agrarian, handicraft economy changed to one dominated by industry and automation.
The use of new basic materials, chiefly iron and steel, the use of new energy sources, including both fuels and motive power, such as coal, the steam engine, electricity, petroleum, and the internal-combustion engine, the invention of new machines, such as the spinning jenny and the power loom that permitted increased production with a smaller expenditure of human energy, a new organization of work known as the factory system, which entailed increased division of labor and specialization of function, important developments in transportation and communication, including the steam locomotive, steamship, automobile, airplane, telegraph, and radio, and the increasing application of science to industry –all these made possible a tremendously increased use of natural resources and the mass production of manufactured goods. This process began in England in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world. [Source: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic /287086/Industrial-Revolution]
3) The World in Advance
Global interconnectedness and achieving global excellence should focus on three major issues i.e. science, technology and culture. Overcoming newly emerging threats like Ebola virus, continuing innovation and improvement in science and technology enforce the global communities to stay and to deal with the issues together. Today's science and technology has enlarged its circumference beyond the planet. Satellite technology and continuing other research in outer space has open the gate of new potentiality for the global community.
If somebody asks 'What does globalization mean?' Simply, in a broader sense, one country can’t fulfill its all internal needs with its own products or services. It has to depend on other countries. Similarly, other countries have to do the same. Here comes the necessity of Globalization. Basically, the concept ‘Globalization’ emerged for the interdependency of different countries of the world. For instance, Japan, South Korea or Israel may be good at technology. China, India, Brazil may be leading in agriculture. Then those countries which are good at technology or agriculture, their responsibility is to ensure the proper distribution of the products or services all over the world.