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HOW TO CONDUCT JOB ANALYSIS
STEPS INVOLVED IN THE CONDUCT OF JOB ANALYSIS
Michael Armstrong (2005) defines job analysis as the process of collecting, analysing and setting out information about the content of jobs in order to provide the basis for job description and specification and data for recruitment, training, job evaluation and performance management. Job analysis concentrates on what holders are expected to do.
Cole G.A. (2005) defines job analysis as a term used to describe a process of examining jobs in order to identify their main features in particular, the duties they fulfil which are expected to achieve the major tasks undertaken and the job relations with other jobs in the organizational hierarchy.
Steps followed in conducting a job analysis are as follows:
1.The Statement of Objective/Purpose of the Analysis:-
This step explains why the job analysis is being done and what is expected to be achieved by the end of the analysis of the designated jobs and also what the result of the analysis would be used for. E.g. recruitment, training, job evaluation and performance management.
2.Identification of the Jobs to be Analysed:-
This step involves the listing of all the jobs that are to be considered for analysis. In an organization not all the jobs may require analysis; therefore all the jobs designated for analysis would be catalogued at this point.
3.Review of Existing Documents:-
This step requires that all existing documents that give information about the jobs to be analysed should be reviewed. These documents may include organizational charts, policies and procedures, training manuals, company handbooks, existing job descriptions and specifications which might have become obsolete etc.
4.Explaining the Process to Managers:-
At this point an outline plan for the job analysis is submitted to senior management in order to gain their support and approval for the process. You also discuss it with the line managers and specialist and modify the outline plan if necessary.
5.Explaining the Process to Employees i.e. Current Job Holders:-
Explain the whole process to the affected employees, that is, the current holders of the jobs designated for analysis, because they will be very instrumental in providing the needed information about the jobs and therefore their cooperation is very important to the success of the whole process.
6.Conduct the Job Analysis:-
Here, you draw up a detailed plan with time tables. You select and train analysts if applicable. After that you implement pilot stage, review the results and discuss any problems. If this stage works well you proceed with the final plan and again review results.
7.Prepare Job Description and Job Specification:-
Having completed with the analysis of the main features of the job, at this stage you prepare job description (i.e. recording under an appropriate job title, of tasks and responsibilities involved in the job and setting out the purpose of the job, where it fits in the organizational structure and the context within which the job holder functions) and job specification (i.e. a written statement of necessary qualifications needed for a job)
8.Maintain up to Date Job Descriptions and Job Specifications:-
Under this final step you make sure all Job Descriptions and Specification are kept up to date and reviewed regularly to keep them abreast with the changing demands of the jobs in question.