HR Planning and Staffing
Read the SHRM article Performing Job Analysis. Use the article to describe any two uses for job analysis within an organization (why it is done). Then contrast two job analysis methods and their benefits (how they are done).
Speculate on at least one limitation or downside of each method.
Job analysis is the process of obtaining information about all of the parameters of a job, such as the responsibilities, behaviors, skills, the physical requirements, and the mental requirements of the people who do it; this information is collected through determination of the duties, tasks, and/or activities that people who hold that job complete (Bohlander, Snell, & Morris, 2013). A job analysis is typically used in order to create a job description which is a clearly defined description of the job which includes a list of either required or preferred qualifications for the job incumbent (Performing Job Analysis, 2013). There are many reasons for an organization to perform job analysis such as: strategic HR planning, workflow analysis, recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation management, and legal compliance (Bohlander, Snell, & Morris, 2013).
An organization may decide to perform a job analysis for strategic HR planning purposes; in this case the organization is using the job analysis in order to examine their organizational structure and strategically position it for the future (Bohlander, Snell, & Morris, 2013). The job analysis would help to determine if the organization has the right numbers, types of jobs, and skills needed to cover the scope of its activities in both the present and in the future, whether or not the jobs are conflicting with each other, and if there are tasks that are not being clearly assigned to certain jobs (Bohlander, Snell, & Morris, 2013). When the job analysis is being done for strategic HR planning purposes, it is acting as a focal point for ensuring the organization is in alignment with itself. A job analysis can also be completed for recruitment and selection purposes. When a job analysis is done for recruitment and selection purposes, the main goal is to provide information on the job in order to attract qualified applicants while discouraging applicants that are unqualified from applying (Bohlander, Snell, & Morris, 2013). The job analysis also ensures that the job description shown to potential applicants is updated as needed in order to be accurate (Performing Job Analysis, 2013).
There are many different job analysis methods, each method has its own benefits and drawbacks. The most common methods of job analysis are the: open-ended questionnaire, highly structured questionnaire, interview, observation, and the work diary or log. The work diary is a log that is kept and maintained by an employee; the employee records the frequency and timing of tasks as well as other information that pertains to their job (Performing Job Analysis, 2013). HR then analyzes the diary in order to identify patterns and create a description of duties and responsibilities from the information provided by the employee in the diary (Performing Job Analysis, 2013). The main benefit from the work diary is that it provides HR with a massive amount of information, but the downside is that HR often struggles to interpret the data and much of the data ends up not being job-related. Due to the massive amounts of information it is possible that HR could misinterpret a job task, this in turn could lead to potential applicants not understanding all of the tasks involved in the job they are applying for or being underqualified for the position. The observation method involves the direct observation of employees that are performing job tasks. After the observation HR then converts their observations into a report that includes information on the job such as: the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities required by employees in that position (Performing Job Analysis, 2013). The observation method has the benefit of providing a genuine view of the daily tasks and activities that a person in the position completes, however, the downside of this method is that it is not as effective for jobs that have a longer cycle or that involve tasks that are not completed on a daily basis. For instance, if the job involved certain tasks that were only completed once a year, then that task might not happen during the observation which, in turn, could lead to HR not recording it as a part of the job.
Bohlander, G., Snell, S., & Morris, S. (2015). Managing human resources (17th ed.). Thomson/South-Western.
Performing Job Analysis. (2013). Retrieved December 9, 2015, from http://shrm.com
A research study has found that managers often hire external candidates rather than promote their current employees because they have a tendency to overvalue unfamiliar candidates and undervalue known ones.
Practices a company can use to make the best decision whether to hire internally or externally include:
implementing effective succession planning
recognizing managers’ biases
understanding the job and describing it accurately in the job description
all of the above
Which of the following is NOT one of Marriott’s recruiting principles?
Building an employment brand
Getting it right the first time
A caring workplace
Bringing in new blood
Research on the investment banking industry shows that external hires earn how much more than existing employees promoted into similar positions?
5–10 percent more
no more or less; their pay was comparable
18–20 percent more
about 33 percent more
_____ are labor markets in which workers are hired into entry-level jobs and higher level jobs are filled from within.
Internal labor markets
External labor markets
Global sourcing markets