What Can You Do with a Degree in Political Science?
Before You Graduate
Graduating with a degree in political science does not guarantee a job in politics let alone a career. There are many political science graduates all across Canada and there is plenty of competition for work.
Therefore, one of the most important things you can do for yourself before you complete your degree is to research, research, research! What kind of research? Here are some examples:
- What area of political science do you want to specialize in?
- Where do you see yourself working (geographically) after you graduate?
- What do you want to get out of a career; stability? money? benefits? excitement? travel?
- How do you plan on developing your career?
- What skills or experience do you need?
These are all very important questions that you should begin asking yourself if you haven't already. The sooner you begin, the more likely you will be successful in having the career you want with your political science degree.
There are approximately six areas of employment you can enter with your political science degree:
1) Public Service Sector
6) Non-Profit organizations
Work in the Public Service Sector
So you want to work for the government? The plus side to working in the public sector is good pay, a certain level of job stability, benefits and depending on what department you work in; a chance to move up the corporate ladder. Did I mention benefits?
The downside? During these economic times while recovery is still not complete and everyone is watching where the money goes, the government is making cuts to the public service sector in all areas and departments. More people are retiring and there are no plans to fill their positions = less employment opportunities for you.
There are also more hurdles to jump through to even make it to a job interview. Most bureaucratic positions here in Ottawa state that you must be bilingual BBB imparitive. That's oral, reading and writing. There are also numerous tests you must pass in some cases (depending on the department and position) and years of experience are a must have.
What can you do to improve your chances of being hired?
- Get some solid experience under your belt. If you are a recent university graduate, you can apply for the 10- month paid internship program through Parliamentor if you are a Conservative Party member you can apply for their summer internship program. You will be placed in an MP's office or a Minister's office allowing you gain valuable knowledge and experience as well as the opportunity to interact with other public sector employees. The pay is nothing spectacular but the networking opportunities more than make up for it. Make the most of it.
- Learn to speak, read and write french. There are many places here in Ottawa that offer french language training specifically designed for public sector employment/employees. Other avenues would be McGill University in Montreal offers a full-time French Intensive program during the summer.
- Find work in the private sector in a field related to your studies that will assist you in obtaining a job in the public sector.
- Volunteer your knowledge and experience with non-profit organizations in your field of study.
- Regularly check the federal/provincial public service employment websites for job listings that you would be interested in applying for and see what specific qualifications you will require.
Become a Lobbyist
What's so great about becoming a lobbyist?
Well for starters, you can specialize in a particular area that interests you such as medicine, business, foreign affairs, etc. If you love policy, there are plenty of policy analyst/advisor opportunities. Most lobbying positions put you indirect contact with many key players in the political sphere, especially politicians on Parliament Hill. Can you say network?
Another added bonus to working for a lobby group is that many offer junior research positions, paid internships and offer paid career development opportunities.
Most positions require a Bachelor's degree, a few years experience (usually 4-6 on average) and appropriate work experience in industry, politics or government.
Work as a Consultant
This is a difficult career path to embark on shortly after your political science degree. Being an effect consultant requires extensive experience in your related field in order to be taken seriously in the political world.
It will be hard work just to find short-term employment and contracts with governments, universities and NGOs as there is plenty of competition out there, especially in Ottawa.
If you still decide that ultimately this is the career you wish to develop you will need to work on building an extensive network of contacts, learn a second language and it would be in your best interest to diversify your background by taking a second B.A. or M.A. in another discipline.
Work as a Teacher or Professor
This is the career path for those wishing to pursue a Masters degree and follow up with a Ph.D.
There is one word that can describe the career outlook for someone interested in teaching: tight.
Why do I say that? The Canadian market for university teachers has been flat for over a decade. The supply of tenured teaching positions is far less than the demand. It is recommended that only the top 5 to 10 percent should consider an academic career. It is likely that you will need to take limited term or sessional appointments before landing a tenure-track position.
What can you do to develop a career in this area?
- What you study is equally important as where you study. A university with a solid reputation or department with a good reputation will help you.
- Apply for every scholarship and award that you are eligible for. They help demonstrate your scholarly excellence.
- Remained focused on your dissertation research, take only one assistantship and one sessional appointment for lecturing and course management skills. Keep outside commitments to a minimum and plan a publication strategy which should include a publication of your dissertation.
- How to Become a Legislative Assistant on Parliament Hill
A helpful how-to guide for becoming a Legislative Assistant on Parliament Hill in Ottawa.
- Lobbying and the Conflict of Interest Act
Reporting public office holders are reminded that specific lobbying restrictions are just one aspect of their ongoing obligations after they leave public office.
Work on Parliament Hill
You don't need a Bachelors degree to get a job working on Parliament Hill. However, these are mainly legislative assistant jobs. If you want a job on the Hill where you have more seniority and authority you will need a Bachelors degree of some sort and you will require a political party membership in order to work in any MPs office.
Jobs in any MP office, whether they are in cabinet or just a backbencher are usually separate from the public service. Employment opportunities are rarely posted publicly. Instead, they are circulated via internal email. You won't which MP is hiring and for what unless you have access to this email yourself or know someone who can forward you any job openings.
Working in an MPs office is not really considered a career given the unstable nature of government. Unless there is a majority, there is no guarantee of job security for any length of time. Working on the Hill is however, a very valuable asset to anyone with a political science degree with regard to both the experience and networking opportunities available through that position. Such job experience may include; general office duties such as filing and answering phones to research work on specific issues and questions of interest to the MP. It may also include constituency work, speech writing, communications, 10 percenters and householders.
Those who work directly in a Minister's office usually do have a post-secondary degree and relative experience. These jobs are few and far between and often depend upon who you know. Many such positions deal more specifically with policy pertaining to the department that Minister is responsible for, such as Aboriginal Affairs. So if you are interested in developing a background in policy and government, working in a Ministers office is a great advantage.
What can you do to become employed in this area?
- Get a membership with the political party you identify with.
- Take advantage of any and all opportunities to network with people that work on the Hill and the politicians themselves. This can include constituency BBQs, town hall meetings, or larger networking events such as conventions or conferences by various policy organizations as well.
- Look for publicly posted job opportunities to work in the office of a political party. Many staff members have gone on to work for MPs on the Hill.
- Applying for an internship program is another way to get your foot in the door.
- Volunteer your services to an MP office
Provincial and Municipal jobs
The same advice applies to work in legislatures or city hall. Jobs at city hall tend to be fewer and far between than on the Hill or at any provincial legislature.
The office of the ethics commissioner has specific rules and regulations for people who work on the Hill and then wish to work for a lobby group. For most positions it requires a 2 year cooling off period before you can work for a lobby group. In some instances, if your position involved greater access to government or if you were a Minister or MP there is a 5 year cooling off period. Be sure to keep this in mind before you seek employment on the Hill so you know what to do once you are no longer working to continue to develop your career with your political science degree.
Work for a Non-Profit Organization/Charity
Having a career in the non-profit sector has its advantages and disadvantages.
Many of these organizations rely on funding from the government so they often do not have a large operating budget to have a large staff, they rely primarily on volunteers. Most of these organizations also have a fairly flat management structure which means there will very little room for advancement. People are lucky enough to secure a better job in this sector tend to hold on to them for as long as they can, so vacancies rarely occur.
On the plus side there is a large number of these organizations spread out across Canada varying in type and focus, including all different area of interest from industry and development to world peace. Because these organizations deal with government in one way, having a degree in political science will give you an advantage over other job seekers with degrees in sociology or economics.
Two key listings you should be familiar with before pursuing a career in this field are:
- The Directory of Associations in Canada (Toronto, annual)
- The Encyclopedia of Associations: International Organizations (Detroit, annual)
- CPSA | ACSP
Listing of federal and provincial political internships
- NPSIA Works: Career Futures
NPSIA graduates work around the world from Ottawa to Singapore, from Washington to Athens. They are diplomats, international public servants, aid workers... listing of job titles in various career areas graduates achieved
Additional Suggestions to Develop Your Career
- Take advantage of the career centre of your university. It can help you identify areas of employment and career opportunities with your Bachelors degree.
- Attend as many career fairs as you can while in university. Many are held right on campus.
- Take advantage of any opportunities to build up your existing network of contacts
- Start a blog or your own website about issues or areas that are of interest to you. This will help your writing skills, computer and Internet skills and will give you some exposure.
- Writing is another way to bolster your resume, provide additional experience and exposure. Your university newspaper is a good place to start. Other avenues include student publications such as the Fraser Institute's Canadian Student Review.
- Volunteering is another way to gain valuable experience as well as network and get your foot in the door of places you wouldn't otherwise be able.
- Consider furthering your education by taking your Masters degree. A very popular degree for working in politics/government in Ottawa is NPSIA. You can also study for an additional diploma such as the University of Guelph's Certificate in Public Policy and Administration which you can do completely online. Often by having additional education it can give you an edge when competing for certain jobs.
- Research job listings that you are interested in career-wise and see what they list as requirements. Make a list of the qualifications you need to have and work on developing them. They can be computer skills, language skills, or communication skills to name a few.