Invasive Species Outline
A) The purpose of my speech is to persuade my audience to understand the dangers that invasive species represent.
A) There are about 7,000 estimated non-native species present in North America, approximately 1,000 are invasive; while native species do out number invasive species they still manage to cause billions of dollars in economic and ecological harm each year (Simberloff, 2013). Have you ever encountered an invasive species? Do you know what an invasive species is? A species is considered invasive or alien when it is not native to an area, but it becomes established and causes, or is likely to cause, economic or environmental harm or harm to human health (Fernandes & Blanco, 2012). Invasive species negatively impact people, native species, and the environment. We as a society need to be aware of invasive species and work to slow there spread.
A) Impact of Invasive Species Towards People
a) Subpoint 1: Danger to pets and children
(1) Many invasive species are harmful to people and pets. For instance, the cane toad, which was introduced from South America to the United States, is poisonous. The cane toad has been responsible for the death of numerous household pets. They also present a risk to young children who try and catch them. If a child were to touch a cane toad and then put their hand in their mouth they ingest poison.
b) Subpoint 2: Costs
(1) Invasive species removal ends up costing people large sums of money that could have been allocated to filling different needs. Removing invasive species from the Great Lakes costs an estimated $500 million annually. The United States spends around $120 billion annually in control methods and in loss of environmental resources (Hill, n.d.).
c) Transition Statement- Invasive species often present a danger toward people; however they can also present a danger towards the native species of animals.
B) Impact of Invasive Species Towards Native Species
a) Subpoint 1: Extinction
(1) “Invasive species are the second largest cause of species extinctions in the United States” (Hill, n.d.).For instance, the Burmese pythons that now live in the Florida everglades; have been responsible for the death of numerous threatened and endangered bird species that are native to the everglades. If the Burmese pythons continue to hunt the native threatened and endangered bird species it is likely that some of those species will go extinct.
b) Subpoint 2:Habitat Alterations
(1) Some invasive species have been known to alter habitats to fit their needs; these changes often make the habitat unsuitable for native species. For instance, beavers when relocated to South America multiplied until they numbered in the hundreds of thousands. The beavers then build dams in drainage ditches of grasslands; native species were often found dead in these ditches after they became stuck.
c) Transition Statement- Invasive species are often dangerous towards native species. In addition to having a negative impact on native species, invasive species also impact the environment.
C) Impact of Invasive Species on the Environment
a) Subpoint 1: Destruction
(1) There are many invasive species that threaten not only people and native species, but also the environment. The kudzu vine was introduced from Japan in the 19th century as an ornamental plant. However the plant was distributed across the Southeastern United States as a means of erosion control and as a food source for grazing animals. The kudzu vine quickly became known as “the vine that ate the South” because of its ability to overgrow entire forests preventing sunlight from reaching the trees. The lack of sunlight combined with the weight of the vines on trees has caused the death of many forests in the Southeastern United States (Hill, n.d.).
b) Subpoint 2: Changes
(1) Some invasive species change the environment they live in to fit their needs. For instance the beavers from South America destroyed whole sections of forest to the point where they look like they have been hit with a bulldozer. The beavers have created ponds that flood sections of forest and these bodies of water have in turn altered the nutrient cycle in the environment.
c) Transition Statement- The negative impact of invasive species on the environment affects everyone.
A) It is important that you understand the negative impact that invasive species cause. Everyone can help prevent the negative impact of invasive species by being careful to never introduce a non-native species to an ecosystem. You can fight invasive species by turning unwanted pets over to an animal shelter, through educating those around you about invasive species, only grow native plants in gardens, make sure to clean and dry boats before taking them into different enviornments, and through becoming a field observer with the Outsmart Invasive Species app. The app allows you to submit photos and data on invasive species that you locate to the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (Bargeron, n.d.). The data provided allows the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health to better combat the threat of invasive species. In conclusion while native species do out number invasive species they still manages to cots the United States billions of dollars every year and harm to people, native species, and the environment.
I chose to organize my presentation in this manner so as to share all of the relevant facts with my audience. I believe that this organization will assist me in my purpose of persuading my audience to understand the dangers that invasive species represent. Further I hope that this organization will help me to convince people to avoid introducing non-native species to their ecosystems.
Blanco, Joaquín J., and Adrian T. Fernandes. Invasive Species: Threats, Ecological Impact and
Control Methods. New York: Nova Science, 2012. Web.
Hill, Jacob. "Invasive Species: How They Affect the Environment." How Invasive Species
Impact the Environment. N.p., n.d. Web.