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Planning and execution of works in government departments!
Estimating is vital for projects!
How government works are executed?
Planning has become an integral part of human life. Some people make very elaborate plans to execute certain tasks. Yet some other people attempt various tasks without much preplan. They just embark on the task. No doubt, without meticulous planning, no task can be executed perfectly. At the same time, if so many factors are involved in the execution of certain tasks, one may not be so sure to achieve the planned targets.
Engineers, the world around make elaborate plans to execute large projects. They have to take into account, availability of raw materials, manpower, space for stocking the materials which can not be exposed to weather etc. No one can start the work after all the materials and manpower is available. There are certain works which can be taken up simultaneously with other works. For instance, leveling the site is the first requisite in any engineering project. Construction of temporary sheds for men and material is the second requisite. Of course, any government project can be taken up only after receipt of Administrative sanction as well as Technical sanction. Some preliminary estimates are made to obtain the administrative sanction, indicating the name of work, name of place and the approximate cost involved including a time frame for execution. This is obtained from the Administrative authorities who sanction the fund for the project.
Once the sanction of the administration is obtained, the field engineers undertake detailed estimates specifying the quantities and cost of different sub works involved in the work. Extreme care is taken not to miss even a single item in the detailed estimates. Once the detailed estimate is sanctioned, by the appropriate technical authorities,, based on architectural plans for the work, the field engineers undertake to check the dimensions of the site, The architects prepare the preliminary and detailed drawings with dimensions etc. Then come the tendering process. Based on the cost of the project, tenders are displayed in major newspapers, as well as in the web site of the departments. Those contractors who are eligible to tender apply for tender documents after paying the required amounts. Once tender documents are sold along with details of work, tender opening date is specified in the tender documents. All those contractors who have bid for the work assemble in the office of the Executive Engineer. As each tender is opened, the rates quoted by the contractor are read out loudly so that all contractors could note them. The officer opening the tender note down the corrections, overwriting, missing amounts etc and note down page wise and sign it as a token of check.
After all the tenders are opened, a comparative statement is prepared with the quoted amount by each contractor and the lowest tender amount is noted down. These are thoroughly checked by the accounts section and accounts officer and a detailed note regarding the tender is prepared by the Engineer indicating certain high rated and low rated items. Some times, the lowest quoted contractor is called for negotiation to further reduce the quoted amount within the permissible limit above the market rates prevailing. Most of the time the lowest quoted tenderer agree to reduce certain quoted items and the tender will be awarded to the lowest quotation. Then work order is issued promptly detailing the final amount after taking into account the reduced rates. The work will be commenced by the contractor after making all arrangements in the site and taking over the site from the department. This is the general procedure for execution of any major project in any government departments.