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Practical difficulties in Project implementation in Nepal
Project Management Planning in Nepal
A Project Planning is a pre-determined frame work of activities of the concerned project to be done in future. All the Elements like project goal, cost, time etc. are already determined previously. Therefore , a planning becomes much more necessary to achieve these pre dertermined goals. The facts that who, why, how, when, by whom, etc. to conduct works are already previously determined in a project management planing Therfore activities to be followed in the process of completing all the projects work in a fixed period of time and fixed cost to fully economically and efficiently allocation the resources is the project management plannings.
It cannot be said definitely when the project management planning was started. But it can be said that project work was started form five year plan(2013 B.S.) of Nepal. The project was executed even before this time but they were not managed and planned. These days, the National Planning Commission executes the Project management Planning. Specially, the national planning commission monitors and evaluate the public projects regularly. it helps Nepal Government to formulate and execute project policies.
Many Statistics reveal that project management planning has already been started in Nepal but it is not being able to proceed up effectively. Specially, the National planning Commission strengthening project, 2050 has classified the project run in Nepal into four types and it is mentioned in the directorate to forumulate management planning accordingly.
- Current plan
- Development Program
- Special paln
- Follow on projects
1. Current plan: First of all, all the requirements of the whole sectors of the country are calculated and the solutions of the problems are identified. Thereafter, a pace of development with a fixed periodic invenstment for the planned development of geographical region or functional region is determined. A program running at present and prepared in this way is a current plan.
2. Development program: A Planned concept prepared by determining the fixed period of time and the geographical region for regional, sub-regional and group-wise development concerning the development works is known as the development program. Lumbini Area Development plan is an example.
3. Special plan:- A plan which is different than a plan of the general nature and which shows special interest in is a special plan. A plan prepared to achieve predetermined , goals in a fixed period of time with a fixed investment in specific geographical area or functional area concerning development works is a special plan. The planning for apples of jumla, Poultry farming in Seti zone, etc are it's example.
4. Follow on Projects :- Those projects which run continuously for many years in the future to achieve the pre-determined objectives by managing time and cost regularly and sequentially are the follow on projects. They should be conducted in various stages. The rural drinking water project , cleanliness development committee, etc are the examples
Practical Difficulties In Project implementation in Nepal
Nepal is one of the poorest countries of the world. Such undeveloped and developing countries have a special importance of projects. it helps a lot to develop infrastructure of country. A project helps in completing the desired works in a fixed period of time with a fixed cost. But it is necessary that a project should be properly formulated and properly executed. In Nepal Projects are not properly planned and properly executed due to various reasons. The political, Legal, economic, social, technical, factors, etc. are considered the main obstacles of proper planning and execution of projects. This is the reason that project planning and execution are not being effective in Nepal. The main problems practically arisen in project execution in Nepal are as follows:
- Unclear policy and objectives.
- Political intervention
- Political instability
- Defective project design
- Delays in project approval
- Delayed appointments of consults
- Delays in releasing the budget.
- Delays in procurement.
- lack of coodination.
- lack of public participation
- Reimbursement problems from donor agencies.
- Poor monitoring and evaluation
1. Unclear Policy and objectives. There are problems in the execution of projects in Nepal due to unclear policy and objectives of projects. The polices and objectives are unclear due to the reason that the policy makers lack the sufficient knowledge of the project and delays in determining policies and objectives in due time are practical problem of the project execution
2. Political intervention There are numerous example of political intervention in project execution in Nepal. Nepal is in a transitional phase at present . The sister organization of various parties have disturbed projects by raising voices by many unwanted demands. Projects are being unable to take pace due to political intervention and they are not being completed in due time. The situation have raised the cost of projects. for example Melamchi water project and Mid marsyangdi Hydro Electric project are the example of it.
3. Political Instability: The political instability of Nepal has caused problems to the project execution. There is no political stability in Nepal because she is trying to enter into one political situation from another political situation. Unless there is a political stability in country project cannot be executed in proper sense. There are problems in project execution also because the policy decisions are not being made in time due to party-wise and idea wise differences.
4. Defective Project design Most of the donor agencies formulate the project without making any site visit or site study. Thus, problems arises when projects are formulated being ignorant about the geographical situation of project site. There may be errors in the determination of project structure due to high cost estimations and wrong assumptions. It makes project execution ineffective. At the same time , when the project is formulated by an agency that is quite ignorant about the geographical situation of site, the proper technology may not be selected. It has many examples.one of the examples is that foreigners are wrongly introduced in the very beginning that Nepal is a fully Mountainous country. This is the reason that they prepare projects of snow-roofing schools even it terai because the foreign donor agencies may have a belief that Nepal is fully covered by Snow.
5. Delays in Project ApprovalThere are delays in the process of project approval in Nepal due to her political instability. Sometimes a compelled situation of moving around ministries, National planning commission, Ministry of Finance, Parliamentary building, etc. arises to approve the project. It makes project approval a time consuming.
6. Delays in Consultants Appointment: The consultant's appointment process and working methods are complex and time consuming. The inability of appointments of consultants in proper time due to the political pressure is the problem of project execution. The advice of the consultant may be irrelevant in the context of project. They may lack the measurement, inspection and efficiency of the project stability.
7. Delays in Releasing the Budget There are delays in budget releasing in Nepal due to political instability. The political parties use more time and lay priorities only to form a government. It makes budget releasing delayed and project work cannot be completed in due time in the lack of budget.
8. Delays in procurement Projects are not being completed in Nepal due to the Delays in procurement. Specially, the Nepalese Projects are conducted by donor agencies and their procurement process may be delay due to the reason that they will be getting goods and services through contractors by requesting bids on tenders.
9. Lack of coordination A project execution requires contact and coordination of different parties. But due to the lack of coordination, the files of projects have to be pended up for months in ministries. Projects remain incomplete duet to the lack of sound coordination between donor agency and project management.
10. Lack of public participation The participation of local People is very much essential to run the project . But Nepal has sufficient examples of the lack of people's participation in projects. There are lack of public participation in projects for most of the projects are run in rural areas and the rural people have generally negative attitude towards projects.
11. Reimbursement Problems From Donor Agencies : Projects needs a regular budget. But, budget not being allocated in due time and delays in reimbursement by donor agencies are the problems of project execution.
12. Poor Monitoring and Evaluation : A project requires regular monitoring and evaluation. The target group raise doubts against the quality of the product due to the lack of monitoring and evaluation of the project in due time. therefore, periodic monitoring and evaluation are necessary elements of eradicate doubts. But Nepal lacks this task.
13. Corruption Projects are considered beggar's pot in the context of Nepal. There is a play of large commissions in the name of technicians and technologies in foreign investment projects. At, the same time, the project managers and technicians of Nepal also raise undue advantages of poor monitoring. All these elements cause a great corruption in Projects.
By Tej raj pokharel : Faculty Member of Nepal Commerce Campus
Krishna Bdr. Thapa : Faculty Member of Nepal Commerce Campus