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Public Speaking Final Project 1-Invasive Species

Updated on June 14, 2016

I. Overview

a) My presentation is on the topic of invasive species. My presentation will focus on how invasive species negatively impact people, native species, and the environment. I will finish my presentation by describing the actions that individuals can take to help slow the spread of invasive species. This topic is significant to society as the United States spends around $120 billion annually in dealing with invasive species. This is money that could be put towards other causes that are valued by society if not for invasive species.

b) I plan to use the article titled “How Invasive Species Impact the Environment” to support the sections of my speech on the impact of invasive species. This article explains the effect of invasive species and provides examples of invasive species that have negative impacts on people, animals, and the environment. I intend to use “Invasive Species: Threats, Ecological Impact and Control Methods” in my introduction to explain to my audience what invasive species are. I will utilize the statistics in the abstract from “Invasive species: What everyone needs to know”. This resource states:

“Of the 7,000 estimated non-native species present in North America, approximately 1,000 are invasive. Clearly, invasive species are in the minority, but their small numbers don't keep them from causing billions of dollars in economic and ecological harm each year” (Simberloff, 2013).

I will use this statistic in the section of my speech on the impact of invasive species towards people, specifically in the subsection that focuses on the cost of invasive species, in order to convince my audience of the negative impact that invasive species have on people. The “USDA Forest Service Four Threats” article will be used in my speech to support my point on the costs of invasive species.

c) I will use PowerPoint to create slides which I will add to my presentation. I will also being using photos and possibly a video as visual elements. I will utilize the app known as iMovie on my iPhone in order to add my visual elements to my presentation as pictures. I plan to use the style known as picture in picture. This will allow me to position my visual elements as pictures in my presentation.

II. Design, Development, and Delivery

a) Outline

Invasive Species

I) Purpose

A) The purpose of my speech is to persuade my audience to understand the dangers that invasive species represent.

II) Introduction

A) There are about 7,000 estimated non-native species present in North America, approximately 1,000 are invasive; while native species do out number invasive species they still manage to cause billions of dollars in economic and ecological harm each year (Simberloff, 2013). Have you ever encountered an invasive species? Do you know what an invasive species is? A species is considered invasive or alien when it is not native to an area, but it becomes established and causes, or is likely to cause, economic or environmental harm or harm to human health (Fernandes & Blanco, 2012). Invasive species negatively impact people, native species, and the environment. We as a society need to be aware of invasive species and work to slow the spread.

III) Body

A) Impact of Invasive Species Towards People

a) Subpoint 1: Danger to pets and children

(1) Many invasive species are harmful to people and pets. For instance, the cane toad, which was introduced from South America to the United States, is poisonous. The cane toad has been responsible for the death of numerous household pets. They also present a risk to young children who try and catch them. If a child were to touch a cane toad and then put their hand in their mouth they ingest poison.

b) Subpoint 2: Costs

(1) Invasive species removal ends up costing people large sums of money that could have been allocated to filling different needs. Removing invasive species from the Great Lakes costs an estimated $500 million annually. The United States spends around $120 billion annually in control methods and in loss of environmental resources (Hill, n.d.).

c) Transition Statement- Invasive species often present a danger toward people; however they can also present a danger towards the native species of animals.

B) Impact of Invasive Species Towards Native Species

a) Subpoint 1: Extinction

(1) “Invasive species are the second largest cause of species extinctions in the United States” (Hill, n.d.).For instance, the Burmese pythons that now live in the Florida everglades; have been responsible for the death of numerous threatened and endangered bird species that are native to the everglades. If the Burmese pythons continue to hunt the native threatened and endangered bird species it is likely that some of those species will go extinct.

b) Subpoint 2:Habitat Alterations

(1) Some invasive species have been known to alter habitats to fit their needs; these changes often make the habitat unsuitable for native species. For instance, beavers when relocated to South America multiplied until they numbered in the hundreds of thousands. The beavers then build dams in drainage ditches of grasslands; native species were often found dead in these ditches after they became stuck.

c) Transition Statement- Invasive species are often dangerous towards native species. In addition to having a negative impact on native species, invasive species also impact the environment.

C) Impact of Invasive Species the Environment

a) Subpoint 1: Destruction

(1) There are many invasive species that threaten not only people and native species, but also the environment. The kudzu vine was introduced from Japan in the 19th century as an ornamental plant. However the plant was distributed across the Southeastern United States as a means of erosion control and as a food source for grazing animals. The kudzu vine quickly became known as “the vine that ate the South” because of its ability to overgrow entire forests preventing sunlight from reaching the trees. The lack of sunlight combined with the weight of the vines on trees has caused the death of many forests in the Southeastern United States (Hill, n.d.).

b) Subpoint 2: Changes

(1) Some invasive species change the environment they live in to fit their needs. For instance the beavers from South America destroyed whole sections of forest to the point where they look like they have been hit with a bulldozer. The beavers have created ponds that flood sections of forest and these bodies of water have in turn altered the nutrient cycle in the environment.

c) Transition Statement- The negative impact of invasive species on the environment affects everyone.

IV) Conclusion

A) It is important that you understand the negative impact that invasive species cause. Everyone can help prevent the negative impact of invasive species by being careful to never introduce a non-native species to an ecosystem. You can fight invasive species by turning unwanted pets over to an animal shelter, through educating those around you about invasive species, and through becoming a field observer with the Outsmart Invasive Species app. The app allows you to submit photos and data on invasive species that you locate to the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (Bargeron, n.d.). The data provided allows the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health to better combat the threat of invasive species. In conclusion while native species do out number invasive species they still manages to cots the United States billions of dollars every year and harm to people, native species, and the environment.

Justification

I chose to organize my presentation in this manner so as to share all of the relevant facts with my audience. I believe that this organization will assist me in my purpose of persuading my audience to understand the dangers that invasive species represent. Further I hope that this organization will help me to convince people to avoid introducing non-native species to their ecosystems.

b) I will design my presentation using the app known as iMovie on my iPhone in order to add my visual elements to my presentation as pictures. I will be using the style known as picture in picture to position my visual elements as pictures in my presentation. I will also be using this technique to add PowerPoint slides into my presentation. For the delivery of my presentation I will be using my iPhone on a tripod so that my audience can see my body language.

c) I have decided to keep my design elements simple. I will be using a color scheme of light blue, navy, and white. I chose to use the design called waveform for my PowerPoint because of its simplicity; the fact that the design is so simple will keep it from distracting my audience from the information on the slides. The layout of my slides will differ from slide to slide, but they will all stay as simple as possible so as to not detract my audience’s attention from my speech. I will be using the font called Arial Black because it is easy to read and it is a larger font so it will be easier for my audience to read my slides.

d) I do not feel as I have that many strengths in oral presentation and verbal delivery skills. The only strength I would say I have is that I am good at adapting my speech to the situation. This is why I have decided not to memorize my speech word for word and instead use the delivery method of speaking extemporaneously. My weaknesses in oral presentation and verbal delivery skills are: lack of confidence, lack of experience, and the fact that I sometimes mispronounce words. I plan to maximize my strength by focusing on memorizing the important aspects of my speech. To minimize my weaknesses I plan on practicing my speech in advance and creating good note cards.

III. Audience

a) My audience is going to be a mix of different ages and genders, social backgrounds, cultures, ethical beliefs, subject knowledge, and interest levels. The audience for my speech will all share a social background of being online students at Southern New Hampshire University; this also means that my audience will all have a similar education level of having graduated high school or obtained their GED. The fact that my audience is composed of online students tells me that my audience will be scattered around the United States and possible other countries. This means that my audience will have a wide range of cultural values. Knowing that my audience is made up of students from different cultures means that my audience may perceive my verbal language and body language differently.

b) It is important that I know and understand my audience so I am conscious of how to deliver my speech. My audience members all having a similar level of minimum education provides me with a base line for the type of language and terms I can utilize in my speech. To ensure that my audience does not receive mixed messages from my body language I will refrain from making significant gestures. For instance, if I was presenting a speech on medicine to a group of high school students then I would want to avoid using doctor jargon or body language that could be interpreted in more than one way depending on a person’s culture so as to avoid confusing my audience. When I took a high school public speaking class, one of the students gave a speech on the dangers of tanning beds; the topic was interesting to the student, but the presenter focused too much on the science of the dangers and ended up boring most of the audience. For my speech I will make certain to not use jargon and to make sure my speech is delivered at a level appropriate for both college freshmen and seniors.

c) It is vital that I ensure that my speech is ethically sound, meaning I can defend my speech on ethical grounds if questioned or challenged, and that I would be comfortable if my audience was aware of my true motives for my speech (Lucas, 2016). Considering that my speech will be on the topic of invasive species, I will need to consider the ramifications in the lives of my audience members and also in the lives of the people connected to or influenced by invasive species. For instance I am advocating that people understand the negative impacts of invasive species and that they avoid contributing to the problem by releasing pets or animals into the environment. This could cause people to search for a new way to get rid of a pet that they have, to become inspired to help deal with invasive species, and/or it could potentially cause people to decide to eliminate invasive species themselves.

d) Considering that my speech is on the topic of invasive species it is important that I use the correct tone in my speech. I believe that a serious tone would work best as invasive species is a serious topic and most of my speech focuses on the negative impacts of invasive species. I feel that a serious tone would resonate the best with my audience. The tone and approach that I choose will greatly affect my audience. For instance if I were to choose a humorous approach to invasive species I would lose most of my audience because there is nothing humorous about my topic. My audience would doubt my knowledge and credibility on the topic of invasive species.

References

Bargeron, C. (n.d.). Outsmart Invasive Species. Retrieved from

https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/outsmart-invasive-species/id499957573?mt=8

Blanco, J. J., & Fernandes, A. T. (2012). Invasive species: Threats, ecological impact and

control methods. New Tork: Nova Science.

Hill, J. (n.d.). Invasive Species: How They Affect the Environment. Retrieved from

http://www.environmentalscience.org/invasive-species

Simberloff, D. (2013). Invasive species: What everyone needs to know. New York: Oxford

University Press.

US Forest Service. (n.d.) USDA Forest Service Four Threats. Retrieved from

http://www.fs.fed.us/projects/four-threats/facts/invasive-species.shtml

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