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Waste is anything that is no longer of use to the disposer. it is also defined as any unavoidable material that results from an activity or industrial process, but has no immediate economic value or demand and must be disposed of. Waste management seeks to gradually reduce wastes with the ultimate aim of eliminating those that have to cause harm to people and the environment. In addition, it is a criminal offense to handle and dispose of hazardous wastes carelessly on any territorial waters.
Three Forms Of Waste
* Gaseous Waste - Examples include gas flaring, particulate dust, waste gases from stack, cement factories, stone crushing excavation activities, lime dust, asbestos dust, acid fumes and cigarette fumes.
* Liquid Waste - Waste dissolved in water emanating from industrial processes (known as industrial effluent), domestic liquid, acid wastes, waste oil from workshop, sewage's.
* Solid Waste _ Example includes broken brisks, refuse, sludge and slag, broken glasses and bottles, can, plastics, battery casings e.t.c
There are three classes of waste namely
1. Domestic Or Municipal waste
2. Industrial Waste
3. Hazardous waste
* Domestic Waste - Example include Kitchen waste, garden waste, office waste, paper, food, wood, waste water from toilet and bathrooms, laundry.
* Industrial Waste - Examples include scrap metals, cardboard packaging, plastics, organic acid, chemical, waste, oik waste, effluents or gaseous emissions (smoke, fume's, particulate dust).
* Hazardous Waste - They are potential hazards to human health and the environment. They are usually corrosive, ignitable/explosive,reactive, or toxic and therefore they must receive further treatment before disposal. The law requires that they be monitored from "cradle to grave". These include dangerous waste, infectious wastes, radioactive and nuclear waste e.g inflammable liquids, chemical, hospital waste, tank bottom,sludge, pesticides, e.t.c
Principle Of Waste Management
. Waste inventorisation
. Waste Characterization
. Waste Segregation
. Waste Minimization
. Waste Treatment
> Wates Inventorisation - Cataloging of all waste types, quantities, and sources and also gives a quick insight on the magnitude of the waste problem at hand.
> Waste Characterisation - By checking physio-chemical and taxicological properties. (helps to show the type of waste being handle from various lines, by describing the types and properties).
> Waste Segregation - by selective separation of waste and for optimisation of recovery of waste streams ( help to recalculate waste in to their various categories e.g plastics, matels and others).
> Waste Minimisation - This involves the 4Rs techniques namely
> Waste Treatment - This involves physical/biological treatment e.g septic tank disposal (manually or by truck). Manually disposal requires treatment by adding kerosene (DPK).
Waste Disposal Options - The following are the various waste disposal options namely;
. Surface discharge (open dump)
. Ocean dump
. Thermal treatment-incineration
. Slidification, Encapulation (compress into solid).
Landfill - Dig the ground, dump the waste and cover it. preferably, biodegradable waste are buried in landfill. Hazardous waste (Nuclear Reactions) are buried deep down the earth 97,500metre below).
* Chemical Landfill - Waste requires pre-treatment before disposal (hazardous industrial waste)
* Sanitary Landfill - Biodegrabale materials, municipal waste/industrial and non-industrial waste.
* Inert Landfill - Non-decomposable, non-water soluble waste e.g nuclear waste. buried deep in the earth 97,500 metre) and monitored.
Hazards Of Poor Waste Management
. Unaesthetic dump site
. Foul odors- lose of community pride
. Leach-ante from dump site can poison our surface and ground water
. Stagnant pools provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes, flies and other diseases vector
. Provides food for rodents which transmit harmful bacterial and virus leading to epidemic-lassa, Ebola, plague