To build on what Joseph has said, the role of a manager has changed dramatically, particularly over the past decade. Before then, a manager’s job was largely about understanding and interpreting data. Technology digitized those tasks and freed up managers to contribute in a different way. The role of manager evolved, as did the expectation: managers are now expected to have vision and lead by example and their success became measured by their ability to inspire and motivate others—skills that were once considered the exclusive purview of only the most senior corporate executives.
Unfortunately many managers, if not most, are not appropriately prepared or trained to deal with a role that is so undefined. These high achievers are used to being evaluated on their ability to master tangible tasks. Now they’re in a role where the measures appear subjective; they must achieve their goals with limited direction and the outcomes of their efforts are often ambiguous.