Here is a short summary - there's a lot more that could be said.
"Modernism" was a set of assumptions that began several hundred years ago, with roots in the scientific revolution. Western philosophy and the height of civilized society believed that science and social progress would solve all of our problems. This thinking led to absurd claims, such as when, in 1899, the head of the US patent office said that everything worth inventing had been invented. The reality was that the airplane was invented four years later. World War I was touted and justified as "The War to End All Wars," and we had World War II in the next generation. Some people saw it earlier, but, by the 1950s, most philosophers began to see that the error was in assumptions of all Modernist philosophy. Existentialism was a bridge that challenged modern philosophy. Many philosophical positions after existentialism are called "post-modern." Some are influenced by the discoveries of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and Goedel's Incompleteness Theorem, which, together, showed we cannot describe and predict the universe. Others, such as feminist philosophy, critiqued assumptions of modernist thinking. This disparate group of ideas is called "post-modern philosophy, and the society living with it is called "post-modern society."
Industry refers to the industrial manufacture of physical things, of material objects and machines. Improvements in agriculture, transportation, and medicine that resulted from it were supposed to eliminate all human ills, according to modern philosophy. Clearly, that didn't work.
Post-industrial society is today's society, after material industry is no longer the center pin of the advance of civilization. It has two aspects. One is the Information Age, beginning with the Computer Revolution. We now advance more by managing information better than by making new things and machines.
The other is the failure of the society and the economy, so that, as industry fails, the world is actually worse-off, not better off.
Underneath all of this is the question: What mistake are we making that, every time we gain the ability to solve one of the world's problems, we don't solve it, and we create another. We have enough food to feed the world, and yet people starve. May people die of treatable illnesses. More die of preventable illnesses. And we create new illnesses.
For errors of modernism, read C. S. Lewis "The Abolition of Man." Also, Alvin Toffler, "Future Shock."