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Home Business - Growing mushrooms at home
Lately, growing mushrooms has become a concern and quite a profitable business. If you think you begin such a small business, but you do not know how to put it into practice, I will present some data on the things I know about growing mushrooms at home. But I'll start by making a list of the benefits of mushroom cultivation.
The benefits of cultivating mushrooms at home
For those passionate of gardening and especially for those who have a space for which they do not have any use, I will present some of the benefits of cultivating mushrooms at home.
The first crop of mushrooms gives the highest yield per square meter of all cultures. The return on investment is also in a relatively short period after starting production. Mushrooms are sought throughout the year, so there will always be consumers. Culture substrate can be obtained easily from plants and animal waste products (I will return to this issue below). Mushrooms can be grown in various locations that previously had other destinations: barns, sheds, basements, old buildings. You can use the space within the natural setting of the culture. The mushrooms also have nutritional value, in gastronomy, and they even have therapeutic effect. Last but not least, and perhaps most important, cultivating mushrooms at home will ensure the quality of these organic products because you will not use any chemical fertilizers or other toxic products for the body.
Types of mushrooms that can be grown at home
Agaricus bisporus is a fungus culture, white or cream to fruition, requires relatively low temperatures, 12 ° -18 ° C. The increase represents the beginning of mushroom business success.
Agaricus edulis is a cultured fungus, white, thermophilic, known as the "snowball, because the cap surface is smooth, requiring higher temperatures to fruition of tobisporus, 23 ° - 25 ° C. It has a higher yield on cost to bisporus, it is also more resistant to viruses.
Blazei Agaricus mushroom is a white, heat-loving, it has a smooth surface, showing some irregularities and a small concavity in the center, a different aspect at first glance, and Edulis bisporus, requiring ideal temperatures between 21 ° -26 ° C, known as "God's Mushroom" because it has properties that Western medicine is given, in ancient times, in Brazil and Japan.
Pleurotus ostreatus is a fungus culture, featuring a purple hat as the trout spread of beech and for fruition it requires a temperature of 10 ° C- 16 ° C.
Pleurotus Florida is a creamy mushroom culture with thermophilic temperature control, requiring a temperature of 20 ° C -23 ° C for fruition.
Pleurotus HK 35 is a hybrid of high quality. HK 35 has light cream hat and has the advantage that it performs very well both at low temperatures 10 ° C - 12 ° C and 22 °C High 24 ° C, not pretentious in this regard.
Pleurotus Djami is a species of pink, very attractive both in color and very pleasant scent that is obtained from conservation. The ideal temperature for fruition is 21 ° C - 22 ° C.
Grow Mushrooms from Spores
Growing mushrooms at home pre-stage
If you want to turn your passion into a successful business, you acknowledge that you have invested first long and hard work to get the desired results. Of course you should already have a sum of money to invest, but your investment will quickly pay back. Depending on the initial budget that you have, you can opt for two types of cultures:
1. Culture of fungi that produce continuous, daily harvesting: Agaricus culture, Champignon and Pleurotus. For this type of culture you will need a minimum of four rooms for mushroom culture.
2. Culture of fungi produced in 1-2 rooms, with direct sales on the domestic market. Previous stages of mushroom cultivation would be: - decide what mushrooms you want to cultivate - choose the system of cultivation that you want to use - choose the right location: selected buildings require a complete prior cleaning, insulation and ventilation.
Actual cultivation of mushrooms
From the start, it should be noted that the manufacture or cultivation of mushrooms in the same space at the surface is counter-indicated, because the spores of fungi are harmful to emanate for the lungs and they can cause serious respiratory diseases. Look for an old space that you no longer use, such as an old warehouse, a basement, an abandoned barn. Another important space is the same choice to access the water inside the premises or nearby. As I said above, before you start to cultivate, you need to clean the space and chose to isolate it thermally. Thermal insulation is important because the temperature variation between day and night cannot exceed 2-3 degrees C; the room for cultivation will also have a ventilation system, allowing movement of air in the room.
After this first stage is completed you will have to decide how you will grow mushrooms. The most common ways of cultivation, depending on space are growing in polyethylene bags and cultivation on tiered shelves. You will also need to buy compost and Miceli, which are the basics of mushroom cultivation. There are companies specialized in producing compost and Miceli from where you can purchase.
So, after you have completed all these steps, you should do the actual cultivation. You enter the room where the compost will grow mushrooms and you will leave it for 1-2 days to adjust to room temperature. You will then have two working versions depending on the method of cultivation that you have chosen. If you choose to cultivate mushrooms on the rack, when you do so, you spread 100 kilos of compost evenly, across a square meter, and you'll need about 1 kilo of mycelium. You will spread Mycelium over in the compost in two stages. Spread first half of the amount over the compost, then mix compost and flatten it so as to get compost mycelium. Spread the remaining portion of the mycelium then the compost. After the spawn remainder is spread, you will have to make a composition of 50% ground celery, 33% coal dust and 17% sand. Spread this mixture will over the compost and the mycelium already sitting on the shelf.
Another method is to arrange compost is to put it in bags of polyethylene of 25-30 cm diameter and 70 cm height. Compost will be placed in these bags in layers of 10-12 cm, over which mycelium will be spread. Mycelium will not be spread over the last layer. There should not be any air among the compost and the upper part of the bag. Compress this compost with a light batter with the palm. For bags of the mentioned dimensions, put 15-18 kilos of compost, among which sprinkle 0,5-0,75 kilos of mycelium. After filling the bags, drill some holes of 10-12 mm diameter, at distances of 12-15 cm between holes. Pierce the bottom of the bag with some small holes to facilitate draining the surplus. After sowing, the room temperature should be 20-24 degrees C to incubate the mycelium. The differences between day and night should not be more than 3-4 ° C. Relative humidity of air should be 85% by keeping the mixture covered and a permanently wet floor. Ventilation should be 1-2 cm air per hour/square meter.
After two weeks you should see small white rings of mycelium that are surfacing. Over a few days you will start harvesting. In the first phase the room temperature must be stabilized. If the temperature is maintained within the limits of available data when species appeared to soften mushrooms, losses will be increasingly less. Fructification temperature must be maintained during the entire period of fructification. Humidity should be 80-95%, 1-2 cm ventilation air per hour per square meter, air speed of not more than 3 m/sec (at a speed of 3 m/s lit a candle and the flame should not flicker). If ventilation is insufficient this will lengthen the fungus foot, the hat will shrink and open prematurely, thus decreasing the commercial value.
During harvesting, carefully weed with the tip of a knife. Cover the remaining land with mixture of celery, coal dust and sand in the proportions mentioned above. The harvest period takes about 40-45 days, during which fungi appear in 5-6 waves, each wave having 3-5 crop periods of 2-3 days. Mushroom harvesting time is when the veil is not wide enough and hasn’t started to break and the hat is full sized. Once the mushrooms are harvested, do not keep them more than 4 days at room temperature.
Preparation of culture space for a new cycle
Before emptying the crop space, make a thermal disinfection of used compost by injecting steam directly into the room and keep the used compost at temperatures of 60-70 degrees C for 12-24 hours followed by cooling. Only after this, you can clear the room of compost.
The compost is transported and stored far away from the room in which the mushrooms grow. Compost can be used to fertilize the soil immediately. If you want to use compost as fertilizer for the greenhouse it is preferred to keep it for at least a year because the fresh compost has many green plants with harmful salts. In areas of seasonal crop, where it immediately follows another cycle of growth of fungi, chemical disinfection is recommended by spraying with a copper sulfate solution 4.5%or 10% caustic soda and only after that the compost is discharged.
The room emptied of compost, well-ventilated and disinfected will be ready for a new cycle of mushrooms
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