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Updated on November 30, 2011

Be Smart With Your Communication

How To Create Communication

Meaning of communication: - Prior starting business communication, we need to know what is communication. Communication is simple to understand but difficult to define. Defining communication is as difficult as trying to define love. Some scholars defined communication as a linking function between two or more persons. People can reach other members of the society through this link-path with their ideas, feelings, thoughts, facts and values. While many others termed communication a bridge of meaning among people so that they can share news and views with each other. According to these theorists, people by using the ‘bridge’ can safely cross the ‘rivers of misunderstanding’ which sometimes separate them from one another. The attitudes and outlooks expressed by the scholars in the above statements suggest that communication is a meaningful transfer of information from one person (or group) to another. This meaningful transfer of information is essential in every walk of our lives. For example, unless people transmit information, processes such as motivation, leadership and conflict resolution cannot take place. Define communication on this way is still marked by one weakness –lack of self-communication, it is assumed in such definitions that messages are nit sent to the self (more in chapter 4 in intrapersonal communication). This is not all true. To avoid this theoretical confusion, it is better to define communication as a process of sending and receiving a message. This is one simple way to define communication. But communication is so all pervasive in our lives that it is really difficult to offer a universal definition. Even communication theorists have never completely agreed on a single definition. Due to the pervasive nature of communities, they have differed in their opinions. One thing to be noticed is that although they have defined communication in different ways, their main theme is almost the same and identical. This same view is that communication is concerned with all ways of sending meanings (through speaking, writing, drawing, gesturing and such) to others. The following definitions bear the testimony:

  1. Communication is, “The sum total of directly and indirectly, consciously and unconsciously, transmitted feelings, attitudes and wishes” (Jaques, 1951.p.301)
  1. “The term communication may be defined as the field of knowledge which deals with the systematic application of symbols to acquire common information regarding an object of event” (Kelly. 1969.p.450)
  1. “Communication is a dynamic, ever-changing, unending process by which people transmit information and feelings to others” (Barker, 1981. p. 14)
  1. American National society for the study of communication defines communication as a mental exchange of facts, thoughts, opinions or emotions.
  1. Allen in his book ‘Management and Organization’ mentions that sum total of whatever a man doe with a view to creation understanding in the mind of others is called communication.
  1. A comprehensive definition has been provided by William Scott in his Organization Theory: Administrative communication is a process which involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting actions which will accomplish organization goals.

Thus we find a lot of definition of communication which may differ in the approach but not in main issues. In the light of the foregone discussion, compunction may be more explicitly defined as a task of transmitting (or exchanging) information, opinions or ideas sometimes through verbal means (words- written of spoken) and sometimes through non- verbal means (such as facial expressions, gestures and voice qualities) or any combination of both the verbal and nonverbal means so that the material communicated is received and completely understood by the persons involved in communicating.

Nature of communication: -The term communication stems form the Latin world “communis” which means common. However, communication includes in addition to commonalty, the concepts of transmission, meaning and information. When all these features are combined together, communication takes a precise shape in the form of transmission of commonly meaningful information. This transmission involves a process. Thus communication is a process, a process of sending and receiving a message. Rather it is a multifaceted process by which everything happens between and among people. But the process is neither mechanical nor technical; rather it is a human activity. Again, communication is far form being natural human functions like our mouths taking in food and our teeth and jaws chewing the same. “Clearly, communication is a function that we must learn. It was originated by human being and it must be acquired from human beings” (Lesikar. 1991. p 17)

As stated above the job of communication involves a process. The process is not so simple, for it varies with the people, positions and situations. Thus communication is a complicated process. However it involves the following sequence of events: ideation, encoding, transmission through a channel (by the sender), and receiving, decoding, understanding and lastly responding (by the recover) to the message (ideation). This happens in a cyclical order. Upon decoding and understanding the message, the receiver sends out his/her own reaction to the original sender and a cycle is thus, formed at least once. This is one way of interpreting and understanding communication. But this is not that communication is always a linear, static process flowing in an orderly fashion from one stage to the next and that you can easily separate the communicating person’s into senders and receivers. Another way of looking onto the matter is that of viewing it as a dynamic process. Persons in communication often send and receive messages simultaneously. While you are receiving a message, you may at the same tine be sending a new message to the original sender. For example, when you are receiving a message, your facial expression may instantly send a new message to the sender indicating that you either understand or be baffled by the message being sent. Thus the sender and the receiver play the dual roles of receiving and sending a message simultaneously.

Regardless of simplicity or complexity communication does not occur unless: a person transmits a piece of information, another person receives the piece of information and the received information is meaningful to the receiver. All three of these conditions. (i.e., sender of the message, receiver of the message and meaningful message) must be met for communication to take place. Therefore a receiver of the message, a sender of the message and a meaningful message (meaningful both to the sender and to the receiver) are the three basic elements of communication that must be present for communication to occur. In the absence of any one of these elements, there cannot be communication. Thus mere sending or sending as well as receiving a massage is nit adequate to constitute communication. Communication becomes complete when the message is received, read and understood by the receiver. An example makes the point clear. Suppose, you wrote a letter to your friend, put it in a mailbox and the post office lost it, communication did not take place (because you friend did not receive the information). If the friend received the letter but could not read it as it got wet and the writing became illegible, communication did not occur (because the message had no meaning to your friend). If your friend received the letter, read it and it had meaning to the friend, communication took place (whether or not your friend interpreted the letter in the way you had intended). But communication to be effective, it must be interpreted by the receiver in the same way as the source intended.

Finally, it may be said that communication is an inevitable and integral part of management. With the help of different methods and channels the task of communication is performed.

Types of Communication: -There are various forms of communication. They may be viewed from several angles: level of context of communication, method of communication and direction of communication. The levels of communication include : intrapersonal, interpersonal, small group, public, organizational and mass communication. The classification is made on the basis of a number of sensory channels available and immediacy of feedback. Under the ‘methods of communication’ are included verbal communication and non-verbal communication. The basis of classification in this group is the symbols used to carry the message. According to the ‘direction of communication’, it may be of the following types: external, internal, vertical, horizontal, or lateral, diagonal and cross-channel. This classification is based on the pattern and flow of communication. Formality may also be one of the criteria of classifying communication. Here classification is done basing on formality to be observed while communicating. According to this classification communication may be formal as well as informal. There may be yet another classification based on region. Included in this group is local, national, international, and global communication. However this classification is not absolute. Many communication scholars view the types of communication basing on the direction of flow of the message only and as such they classify communication to be vertical, horizontal or diagonal, while many others identify by the types to include communication based on symbols such as verbal words, nonverbal or both. Whatever is the basis of classification, the classes are not independent. They cannot take place on isolation being separated from each other. In real life situations, you will find that more than one class is evolved in the same communication. Take for example, when two person are engaged in communicating (interpersonal communication), the message consisting of verbal, non-verbal or both the symbols may flow vertically, horizontally or diagonally in a formal or informal way. The same communication may occur in local, national, international or global contexts.

Commercial Terms Of Business

Commercial Terms

Abandonment : -The term is used in Marin Insurance in connection with constructive total loss of a vessel by any of the perils. It signifies the relinquishing by the insured of all interests in the wreckage for an agreed compensation.

Accommodation Bill : - An Accommodation Bil is one, which is drawn and accepted solely with the object of obtaining temporary financial accommodation by the process of discounting. Such a bill is drawn on and accepted by a person without any consideration and therefore, the drawee is not actually indebted to the drawer. Accommodation bills are also known as "Fictitious bill", "kites" and "Wind mills".

Account Current : - It is a statement of transactions in a debit and credit from between a seller and his customer. It is periodically prepared and sent by a trader to his debtor of creditor with a view to verifying balance between them.

Account Sales: - This is a statement supplied by an agent or a consignee who sells goods on behalf of the consignor. It shows particulars of goods sold, the gross proceeds realized, the expenses incurred by the consignee including hes commission and the net proceeds.

Act of God : - This phrase is used in a bill if lading. It refers to some unforeseen accident or natural cause that cannot be prevented by any reasonable foresight. No body is legally liable for any loss arising through an Act of God.

Active Partner : - This mane refers to a partner who has capital in the business and takes part in the management of its affairs. He is also known as an ordinary partner of a managing partner.

Actuary: - Actuary refers to the name of a person who is an 3expert in the science of insurance. He calculates annuities and other life insurance matter. He determines by actuarial valuation the profit of a life assurance company and other kinds of companies.

Ad valorem: - It means according to value. An ad valorem refers to customs duty imposed on certain articles having regard only to the value or quality of articles and not their weight or quantity.

Adjudication: - This is an order giver by the court declaring a person as an insolvent.

Advertisement: - This is an art of making the public aware of a particular commodity of service and inducing them to buy it. It is a printed salesmanship.

Advice Note: - This is written communication informing that a particular transaction has already taken place or is about to take place.

Affidavit: - This is a writer statement giver on oath before a person of authority, such as a magistrate, a notary public, or a solicitor who has been appointed a commissioner for oaths.

After Death: - It is used on a bill of exchange and it indicates that maturity of the bill will be calculated at a fixed period after the date on the bill.

After Sight: - This means that the due date of the bill is to be counted at a specified period from the date of presentation of the bill to the drawee

Agenda: - It is a list of items proposed to be discussed at a forthcoming meeting. Generally it is notified to the members to be present at the meeting before the date of the meeting.

All Rights Reserved: - This is printed intimation in literary work. With this few words printed in books, the publishers or the writers as the case may be, notify that they reserve all sorts of legal rights as regards alteration, addition, translation, reproduction, etc. of a literary work.

Allonge:- When there is no space on a Bill of Exchange for making further endorsements, a slip of paper is attached to the bill for the purpose. This slip is known as an “Allonge”. This is a part and parcel of the original bill.

Amalgamation: - It is the process of systematically writing off the cost of intangible asset such as goodwill, patent, etc.

Annuity: - It is a payment made to the insured annually. When an insured under a life policy elects to receive the payment from the life insurance company at a specified rate through out his life of for some fixed number of years, the sum of money (i.e. stated yearly sum) thus received annually instead of a lump amount is known as an annuity.

Antedated Check: - This is a check, which bears a back date i.e. a date earlier than the date are writer as the 1st of July 2000, then it will be called an Antedated Check.

Appellate Tribunal : - It is one of the income Tax Authorities to whom an assessee if dissatisfied by the order of an Appellate Asst. Commissioner, may seek relief against that order (assessment).

Apportionment: - Apportionment means division into parts and it is used in accounts and insurance business. When it is used in accounts it denotes the division of income and expenditure but in case of insurance it signifies the division of total loss to be borne by different parties involved.

Arbitrage: - It is an operation in which a person buys goods in one (cheaper) market and sells in another (dearer) market in order to make profit out of the price difference

Arbitration: - Arbitration is the process of having a dispute settled by a third and an independent party.

Articles of Association: - This is a document, which contains the rules and regulations gov3eming the internal management, organization and the conduct of a joint stock

company. In it the qualifications, remunerations, powers and duties of the directors and other officers are clearly stated. It also states the relation of shareholders among themselves, their power and claims.

At Discount: -It is less value than the face value of shares or debentures.

At Premium: - It means more value of shares and debentures i.e. higher value than the face value of shares of debentures.

Assessment: - It refers to the valuation of income, property, etc., for the purpose of determining income tax.

Auction Sale: - Auction sale is a method of selling an asset to a person in competition in the presence of public bidders. The person offering the highest bid (highest amount of money) is given the property thus auctioned. Generally the sale is dome by giving a public notice in the press.

Audit: - Audit is the verification (searching examination) of all books of accounts, vouchers, etc., by an auditor, a specialized person. This is does to see that they are properly kept and that no fraud has been committed by the party maintaining these books. This checking job is generally conducted at regular intervals such as half yearly of annually.

Effective Communcation

Manage Your Communication Effective

Management of effective communication: -“Good communication are not born, they are made.” To be a good communicator, one must have the needed abilities of appropriately reading, writing, speaking and listening. These qualities are not inborn. However hard you try, you will never be a totally effective communicator. This is because communication needs vary largely from situation to situation and as such, there is no one best way to communicate. Naturally it is better to tailor your communication strategy to the nature of your message, your primary conjunction objective, your receiver, and the communication channels available. Thus you can enhance greatly your communication effectiveness if you follow a systematic approach. The following guide lines will help you systematically to approach the task of effective communication.

Establishing the Message: - Begin by establishing clearly the message you intend to communicate and the reasons for such communication. You are to establish the objective of sending specifically i.e., whether it is to provide simply information, to motivate, to control and the like.

Establishing Needs: - Establish the primary communication characteristics and needs of the message e.g. amount of information in messages, need for modifiability, need for duplication, need for speed and need for feedback.

Identifying the Receiver: - Carefully consider the intended r3eceivers choose the type of communication that is likely to be the most effective with this person.

Identifying Channel: -Identify all possible communication channels. Whatever channels of media i.e. memo, person, phone, telegram, etc. are available should be put on the list of channels to consider.

Evaluating Available Channel: - Evaluate all available channels taking into account the primary communication need of the message. As for example, if the message needs to be sent quickly, interdepartmental mail may not be appropriate. The channel should also be evaluated to determine the degree to which it matches the characteristics of the intended customer. Take for example, if the receiver is hearing impaired, use of phone will be inappropriate. Similarly evaluation should be based on susceptibility to distortion and cost of the channel.

Selecting Channel: - Exercise great care to choose a channel for use. If there is one channel which meets all of your criteria will, your selection will be easy. But in the case of availability of many channels, a combination of two or more channels may be required to meet all of your communication needs.

Encoding the Message: -After you have selected the channel, encode the message carefully so that it matches both the channels used and the receiver involved, For example, a complete sentence should not be used in a telegram.

Placing the Message: - At this stage be sure that you send the encoded message in the appropriate communication channel.

Obtaining Feedback: - Once you have sent the message, look for feedback. Find out if the message was received. If possible, determine what meaning the message had to the receiver.

Following up: - With your communication experience you will be able to identify a variety of available communication channels and learn about their strengths andweaknesses. You will also discover more about the characteristics of the receiver. If necessary, follow up with repeat or elaboration of a message over the same or additional channels.

So we can say also, communication is very vital to discharge the managerial functions. Development of the skills (Outlined above) will not only make you more effective but is likely to create a positive halo about your overall capabilities also

Business Communication

B.C.S Business Center


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