UAV flight and Aerial Photography - worldwide rules
Flying UAVs and taking UAV platform aerial photographs - the Law across different Countries
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), whether operated commercially (for profit) or as a hobby are regulated by the aviation Laws of the Country in question. In addition, strapping a data recording device - e.g. camera - for personal or commercial use may or may not be permitted.
For UAV operators asked to operate in a different country to their own, this can be a minefield so this Lens is a guide to the Laws of individual Countries to assist operators should they be asked to fly there (and possibly take aerial photographs). It is only a Guide so check with the relevant Country before attempting aerial work.
Contributing and using this information
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If you can contribute to this Lens, then please do so - the more information that we can pull together, the better.
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Thanks - Links to Contributors
This Module wouldn't exist without contributions from around the world, so here are links to the contributors.
CASA provides 'guidance to controllers and manufacturers of UAVs in the operation and construction of UAVs and the means whereby they may safely and legally operate UAV systems'
You need Operator and Controller Certification.
By all accounts, the cost of certification is approx AUS$5,000 and insurance is expensive. There are very few operators
All information here is extracted from this discussion on the APLanding discussion Forum. Hope no-one minds. If anyone wants a Credit or to add something, do get in touch.
Liability insurance and a permit from Transport Canada are required for commercial aerial photography activities in Canada. The permit usually take about 4 weeks to be processed and a separate permit is required for each job.
Complete information on Canadian UAV air regulations and SFOC requirements are available at Transport Canada's Civil Aviation website:
Canadian UAV Resources list (Thanks Rob C)
Executive Summary: Can fly for leisure without camera. Once a camera is attached, you need to apply for a "Permission to fly" from the CAA.
Regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). The CAA issues Air Navigation Orders (ANOs) . Craft either have to operate under these constraints or have to actually have Approval under these Constraints.
The CAA classifies craft by weight:
Under 20Kg. 'Small Unmanned Aircraft'
- (Minimum) Operational Constraints (166)
- No Airworthiness Standards
Surveillance / Data acquisition
Under 20Kg. 'Small Unmanned Surveillance Aircraft'
- (Minimum) Operational Constraints(166)
- No Airworthiness Standards
- CAA Permission required (167)
Commercial use (aerial work)
< 20Kg. 'Small Unmanned Surveillance Aircraft'
- Operational Constraints (166a-c)
- plus permissions required (166(5)
- No Airworthiness Standards
20 - 150Kg
- Exemption required including Operational constraints
- Impact kinetic energy must be determined to be not more than 95 KJ
- Airworthiness recommendation from accredited body
- Existing national operating rules
- EASA airworthiness standards
Commercial use of a UAV for aerial photography is forbidden.
There are, however, moves afoot to try to open up the air, so if anyone has further information, please let us know and we will add to this section.
There is a good summary (albeit somewhat old), here
http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=6287 is a good commentary on the current (20th September 2010) state of affairs
Miscellaneous Links that you may find useful
LinkedIn is a Networking site for Businesses. Within it are several groups dedicated to UAV operation and development with a steady stream of useful discussions.
- Overshoot Photos
My Commercial Aerial Photography website. If you want aerial photos taken then take a look at the images here and give me a call or email me. Thanks.
- Aerial Photography section of RC Groups
A usefully busy board
A busy RC forum
- AP Landing
A Forum dedicated to aerial Photography in all forms
- X6 Discussion Board
A Board dedicated to discussion fo the Draganfly X6 UAV
- Wikipedia on Commercial Photography
With a nod to aerial photography, this is a useful guide as to whether you can take photographs ata all, never mind from the air
- Wikipedia on Panoramafreiheit
Panoramafreiheit, translated literally into English as Freedom of Panorama or Panorama Freedom often abbreviated as FOP, is a provision in the copyright laws of Germany that permits taking pictures or creating other images (such as paintings) of buil
Where to buy UAVs - Commercial UAV vendors
A list of UAV / Heli / Plane vendors that will get you started from the smallest practice one, to the largest mean machines out there.
As well as commercial Firms, there are also groups creating open source UAVs. See the next list for these (WIP)
- NitroPlanes.com - The Lowest Price for RC Airplanes and Helicopters
Links to its "Offers" page. Enter Coupon Code: "CJ10" and Receive $10 OFF $125 puchase
- XHeli - RC Helicopters
Links to its "Offers" page Enter Coupon code "xxheli10" to receive $10 OFF $125 purchase
- Draganfly. Home of the Draganflyer X4, X6 and X8
The X6 is the model that I use. The X8 has just (Autumn/fall 2010) been released. Check out the website, then contact Draganfly (USA / Canada) or Overshoot Photos (Europe) for further information, demo flights and ordering any of the models.
A 3.2m long beast. Still, we can dream
Please feel free to add Countries or amend existing entries.
These guestbook entries (validated before publication) will get published and then subsumed into the list of Countries as and when I get the time.
Key points to consider:
- Are UAVs allowed to fly for leisure - if so, where
- Are UAVs allowed to fly for remuneration - if so, what are the constraints
- Are UAVs with cameras attached allowed to fly with / without remuneration - if so, what are the constraints
- Is a licence required
- Links to further information
- If you want a Credit and a link to your website, add it to the end in the format
- CREDIT: Your Name and Country
- URL: Your URL