ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel
  • »
  • Business and Employment»
  • Learn Business Skills

Understanding Vocational Education

Updated on October 25, 2009

Vocational education is training for employment in semiskilled, skilled, or technical occupations. In the broadest sense of the term a professional school of a university is vocational in that it equips students for an occupation, such as law or teaching. The term is generally used in a more restricted sense, however, and does not include training for a profession or for a career that requires a Bachelor of Arts degree or a higher degree. In the United States and other countries where secondary education is compulsory or usual, the manual arts taught in elementary grades are also excluded from the category of vocational education because they do not usually lead immediately to paid work. In economically underdeveloped countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa, elementary school training in agriculture and various trades may be the last schooling a child gets before going to work, and it therefore may be properly termed vocational education.

With greater industrialization, employers and man­agers place increasing stress on technical skills. Even in a prosperous society, when a person lacks required skills, he often finds himself unemployed and poor, particularly as more low-skill jobs are automated.

The public schools of most countries offer a wide variety of vocational training, ranging from agriculture to dressmaking. In addition, vocational training is offered by special schools and institutes above the high school level, by community and junior colleges, and by government bureaus and agencies, industrial companies, labor groups, and voluntary clubs and associations.

Many different kinds of persons are benefited by vocational education. They include young persons about to enter the labor force, students who failed to complete high school or college, veteran workers who need retraining or upgrading because their jobs have changed, and workers who must learn new skills because their old jobs have been automated, or converted to performance by machines. Older adults, most of them women whose children have grown up, are helped by vocational education to enter the labor force for the first time or to return to it.

Types of Vocational Education

Vocational Agriculture. Vocational agriculture teaches efficient farm methods and management. Many students later become farmers, but others use their agricultural skills in such jobs as buying and selling farm necessities and products, food processing, soil and water conservation, and crop spraying. For those who pursue their Studies to the professional level, there are jobs as teachers and researchers and also in government service at home and abroad.

Distributive Education. Distributive education provides training in merchandising and marketing for those who choose a career in business. It includes training in management, supervisory, and employee skills, such as financing a business, training workers, and selling merchandise.

Home Economics Education. Home economics education teaches improved methods of homemaking, including household and money management, child care, care of the sick and aged, food planning and preparation, production of clothing and home furnishings, home laundering, and family recreation. The training equips students for running their own home and for jobs in hospitals, eating places, hotels, and the home-furnishings and clothing industries. Advanced work qualifies students as dietitians, institutional managers, and teachers of home economics.

Health Occupation. Health occupations programs teach students to be practical nurses, nurses, and health workers, including medical-records technicians, X-ray technician aides, mental-health workers, and dental hygienists. Training is usually carried out in cooperation with hospitals and other health agencies.

Technical Education. Technical education prepares persons for skilled and highly skilled occupations that require understanding of scientific and technological principles as they apply to materials, design, production, distribution, and service. Courses progress from the junior high school level to postsecondary institutes and finally to engineering colleges. Jobs include industrial and laboratory technicians, draftsmen, and assistants to engineers, architects, and designers. Job opportunities are good, because for every engineer about eight technicians are required.

A new approach to technical education is the so-called cluster-of-occupations training. Because new technologies are constantly emerging, the student needs training in a broad field so that he can adapt easily to the rapidly changing requirements of his work. Training in a cluster of occupations enables him to move into new areas as they open.

Trade and Industrial Education. Trade and industrial education, sometimes called practical arts education, prepares students for a wide range of production and service jobs. On its higher levels, trade and industrial education often overlaps technical education because of the demand for workers with scientific and tech­nological knowledge. Students learn the arts, materials, tools, and operations of industry and the skills of man­aging workers and machines for utmost efficiency of production. Trade courses cover an extensive range of crafts, including automotive, radio, and television mechanics, plumbing, carpentry, pattern making, electrical installation, beauty culture, fashion and textile design, dressmaking, and millinery.

Office and Business Education. Office and business education provides students with the skills required for office careers through such courses as data entry and short­hand, bookkeeping, accounting, business English, and office procedures. It also teaches students how to manage their own business affairs.

Arts Education. Arts education gives vocational training in applied arts fields, such as painting, sculpture, designing, music, ballet, and theater arts. On completing the secondary or postsecondary course, a student can earn a living in one of these fields. Often, however, he continues to pursue his studies on the college level.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: "https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr"

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)